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短程及多跳的工业无线网络实时性和可靠性研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Real-time and Reliability in Short-range and Multi-hop Industrial Wireless Networks
曾文1,2
Department工业信息学研究室
Thesis Advisor王宏
ClassificationTN92
Keyword工业无线网络 实时性 可靠性 数据链路层 网络层
Call NumberTN92/Z22/2009
Pages137页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2009-01-16
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract无线通信技术极大地推动了科技发展和社会进步,已成为国际技术竞争的焦点和制高点之一。其中工业环境下无线网络技术的开发和应用,成为继模拟仪表控制系统、集散控制系统、现场总线控制系统之后,在过程控制和工业自动化领域拥有广阔市场前景的应用技术。随着无线通信技术的进一步发展,在未来的工业过程自动化领域,无线网络技术将会有更为广阔的应用前景。工业无线网络技术的发展所面临的主要问题是:如何保证工业通信过程中的实时性和可靠性。本论文较为详尽地研究、探讨了工业无线网络中的实时性和可靠性问题,阐述了实时性和可靠性的涵义,分析了工业无线网络对实时性和可靠性的特殊需求,在借鉴已有研究成果并进行创新的基础上提出了问题解决方案。本文重点在网络的数据链路层和网络层展开了研究工作。主要的研究内容与创新点包括以下几个方面:在数据链路层的媒体访问控制层,针对恶劣的工业环境对数据传输的实时性和可靠性的较高要求,和以往工业无线网络中采用的无线通信技术,如无线局域网、蓝牙和Zigbee等技术存在抗干扰能力差的严重缺陷的现实,本论文采用目前无线通信技术领域的热点技术——超宽带技术作为物理信道的通信介质,在对超宽带技术的特点和工业无线信道模型进行研究的基础上,充分利用超宽带技术抗干扰能力强的特点,采用跨层设计的思想——物理层和媒体访问控制层联合设计的方式,提出了基于信道状态的信道选择和速率自适应的多信道媒体访问控制协议,该协议一方面根据射频环境的动态变化,使用信道估计技术从多个可选数据信道中,选择可用的或者相对理想的信道用于数据的传输;另一方面在传输过程中,根据物理信道反馈的误码率值来判断当前的通信质量,可以要求物理层执行参数修改策略,实现发射速率的调整,解决由于多用户干扰、碰撞和工业环境干扰等因素造成的误码率增大问题,来满足工业无线网络的实时性和可靠性需求。该协议优于目前已有的协议,可以缓解干扰带来的延迟增大和吞吐量下降的问题,更好地满足工业通信的实时性和可靠性需求。在数据链路层的逻辑链路控制子层,针对已有的无线网络缓存管理策略在通信中发生拥塞时,无法提供对实时数据的实时性保证,以及不适当的报文丢弃机制无法提供对非实时数据提供可靠性保证的问题,本文借鉴有线通信网络中缓存队列数据分组的动态概率丢弃思想,提出了一种适用于工业实时数据通信的超时早期检测机制,其基本思想在于节点的缓存队列在接纳新到的实时数据时,对其能否在规定的时延限制之内到达目的节点进行估计,并根据估计结果进行早期丢弃,防止无效的传输占用宝贵的无线资源;建立分别存储实时数据和非实时数据的双队列缓存管理策略,两类队列采用循环调度的方法实现数据传输的公平性,以保证数据传输的实时性和可靠性。本文提出的节点缓存管理策略有利于减小排队时延、降低后继分组超时丢弃和缓存队列拥塞发生的概率,与已有的无线网络缓存管理策略相比,可以提高实时数据传输的实时性和非实时数据传输的可靠性。 在网络层,本文重点在路由协议方面进行了研究,针对已有路由协议在工业无线网络应用中存在的不适用性问题,以及工业无线网络传输路径可靠性较差的特点,本文采用可靠性理论,对不相交和相交的多路径选择策略的可靠度进行了分析;针对工业无线网络对通信的可靠性和实时性的特殊需求,本文提出了路径可靠性评估模型。在对基于节点的邻居列表链路稳定性预测的基础上,通过路径的可靠性因子和延时因子的计算来建立可靠的多路径路由。在模拟了不稳定和不可预测的工业通信现场环境后,通过与传统的单路径路由协议和多路径路由协议性能的对比,验证了本文提出的多路径路由协议的有效性。在不稳定和不可预测的通信环境下,其可靠性和实时性性能优于已有的同类多路径路由协议。针对已有无线网络路由协议由于对节点故障类型分析不充分,使得网络中的关键节点更新和路由重构次数增加,从而造成工业无线网络的可靠性和实时性难以得到满足的问题,本文借鉴D.Pradhan在经典理论文献中提出的系统可靠性性能改进的思想,根据工业无线网络的工作环境和特点,研究了分簇结构的工业无线网络中的关键节点——簇首节点的容错算法。本文根据对网络中簇首节点的故障类型的分类,提出了能够及时判断故障类型和有效解决相应故障的簇首容错算法,进而保证在簇首发生故障的情况下,使其能够得到及时的检测和恢复,从而满足工业无线网络的可靠性和实时性需求。本文提出的簇首容错算法在网络中的簇首节点发生故障或通信链路出现异常情况时,能够有效地提高数据发送和接收效率,降低通信延迟,其可靠性和实时性明显优于无容错机制的路由协议算法和已有节点容错机制的路由协议算法,因此本文提出的簇首容错算法更适用于环境恶劣的工业现场环境。
Other AbstractAs a new mode of information dissemination, wireless communication technology has greatly promoted the development of scientific technology and social progress, and has become the focus of international technical competition. The development and application of industrial wireless network technology under the various types of industrial environment have broad market prospects of application technology in the field of process control and industrial automation after the PLC, DCS, FCS and other industrial communication systems. With the development of wireless communication technology, in the future, wireless network technology will be more widely used in the field of industrial process automation. The development of industrial wireless network technology faces the main problems that are how to ensure real-time and reliability in the process of industrial communication. In this dissertation, the issues of real-time and reliability are detailed studied, the meaning of real-time and reliability is described. The innovation and solutions are proposed on the basis of others research. In order to achieve this goal, the dissertation performs research work in the wireless data link layer and network layer.The main contribution are summarized as follows. In the Media Access Control sub-layer, aiming to high requirement of real-time and reliability for the bad industry environment, but the reality of wireless communication technologies such as wireless local area network (WLAN), Bluetooth and Zigbee technology have poor anti-jamming,the dissertation utilizes the ultra-wide band (UWB) technology as the physical communication media. Taking full advantages of UWB technology itself, for example anti-jamming, a multi-channel MAC protocol (UWBIMAC) is developed based on status-adaptive to choose channel and rate-adaptive mechanism. The protocol chooses the better channel to transmit data by channel estimation technology, and solute the increasing of BER by regulation the transmit rate to meet the real-time and reliability requirements of industrial wireless networks. This protocol is superior to existing protocols, it can improve the performance of delay and throughput. In the Logical Link Control sub-layer, in view of existing wireless networks can not provide the guarantees of real-time for the real-time data and the guarantees of reliability for non-real-time data in the cache management strategy,especially the congestion occurs.The dissertation utilizes the thought of dynamic probability discard in the queue of wire networks. The dissertation proposes an overtime early detection of real-time data and two storage queue management strategy. Its basic ideas are that when the buffer memory of node accepts a new data, it estimates the data whether can get to the destimation in the regular time. The data is discarded early according to estimated result in order to prevent the invalid transmission from taking up valuable wireless resources. At the same time, it is able to reduce the queuing delay, to overtime probability of the following data packets, to alleviate the network load and lower the congestion probability of storage queue. In addition, according to the type of industrial data communications, two types of data storage queues are established for non-real-time data and real-time data, using Round Robin queue scheduling strategy to achieve fairness of data transmission.This strategy will reduce queuing delay and the probability of successor group discarded or cache queue congestion occurrence.And compared to the others cache management strategies,it can improve the real-time for real-time data transmission and the reliability for non-real-time data transmission. In the network layer, the research focuses on routing protocol. Based on the existing problems of having been applied to industrial communication as well as communications environment being worse than that of civilian wireless communication networks, the dissertation adopts the reliability theory.Two different multi-path strategies are analyzed. Aiming to the special needs of the industrial wireless network, this dissertation proposes reliable path estimation mode and builds up the protocol based on links stability prediction by lists of neighbor’s nodes. And the reliable multi-path is set up by means of calculating path reliability factor and path delay factor. By the simulation of the instability and unpredictability as the on-site industrial communications environment, the dissertation proves that verification of the proposed multi-path routing protocols in the unstable and unpredictable environment by comparison of the traditional single-path routing protocol and multi-path routing protocols.The reliability and real-time performance is better than that of similar multi-path routing protocols. Because proposed routing protocol does not fully analysis the type of node failure, make the key nodes and routing increase update.The requirements of reliability and real-time in the industrial wireless network have been difficult to meet. This dissertation adopts ideas of D.Pradhan’s system reliability. Aimming to clustering hierarchy industrial wireless network, this dissertation studies the technology of cluster-head fault-tolerant according to the characteristic of industrial wireless network and working environment.Fault types are classified, the algorithm is proposed that can determine the fault type of cluster-head and effectively solve the corresponding fault in time.So cluster-head can be timely detection and recovery when it occurs fault.The reliability and real-time of industrial wireless networks can be ensured. In this dissertation, the fault-tolerant algorithms can effectively send and receive data and reduce communication delays when the cluster-head or its communication links occurs failure.So the reliability and real-time performance is better than that of others routing protocols. The fault-tolerant algorithm in this dissertation is more suitable for industrial environment than others.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/270
Collection工业信息学研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
曾文. 短程及多跳的工业无线网络实时性和可靠性研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2009.
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