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航空环形件加工机器人关键技术研究
Alternative TitleResearch on the key technology of the robot for machining Aeronautic Annular Part
张兴刚
Department其他
Thesis Advisor房灵申
Keyword双臂机器人 结构设计 运动学 轨迹规划
Pages79页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name硕士
2020-05-26
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract本文研究的航空环形件属于机匣类零件,该零件是航空发动机的重要零部件之一,属于大尺寸薄壁件。现阶段企业没有实现全自动化加工,工件上下料时还需人工辅助,加工效率有待提升。针对航空环形件的工况以及机器人所在系统的工作环境进行分析,明确机器人的工作任务。以任务为导向,设计一款机器人加工系统,采用双臂机器人实现多任务分解,完成航空环形件的自动化生产加工,对提高生产效率、保证加工质量以及提升工件成品率有重要意义。为了实现航空环形件数控加工中的定位、夹紧、供能、清洁、抓取和误差补偿等功能,设计了双臂机器人本体、左右手端拾器、机床工作台、气动连杆固定装置和误差补偿装置。同时,系统性设计了航空环形件的机加工流程。对机器人运动学、工作空间和轨迹规划进行分析计算,为机器人运动控制提供支持。具体内容如下:(1)机器人加工系统的结构设计与分析。基于航空环形件的自动化加工要求,设计多任务分解的方案,采用双臂机器人完成任务。基于航空环形件加工中的自动定位和夹紧的需求,设计了一款机床工作台。基于航空环形件在电气供能断开后也能实现压紧的目的,设计了气动连杆固定装置。针对航空环形件加工前后的清洁以及电气供能的问题,设计了右手端拾器。针对右手端拾器连接供能时的运动精度问题,设计了误差补偿装置。针对待加工件位置识别和抓取上下料的问题,设计了左手端拾器。本文对机器人本体、机床工作台、气动连杆固定装置、右手端拾器、误差补偿装置和左手端拾器进行结构设计,在SolidWorks中实现三维建模和主要零件的有限元分析,同时完成样机研制。此外,确定各主要部件的工作任务,系统性设计了航空环形件的机加工流程。(2)机器人运动学分析。基于坐标系的齐次变换和改进DH参数法求解了机器人运动学正解,基于代数法求解了机器人运动学逆解,基于矢量微分法求解了雅可比矩阵,在MATLAB中建立了机器人模型,并对其进行了运动学仿真验证。(3)机器人工作空间与轨迹规划。本文运用蒙特卡洛法,求解了机器人的工作空间,在MATLAB中实现机器人工作空间的可视化。介绍比较了多种关节空间轨迹规划方法,本文采用五次多项式对双臂机器人进行插值规划。通过MATLAB实现仿真,最后得到机器人各关节的角度/位移、角速度/线速度、角加速度/线加速度—时间变化图。
Other AbstractThe aviation annular part studied in this paper belongs to the casing part, which is one of the important parts of the aviation engine and belongs to the large-size thin-walled part. At the present stage, the enterprise has not realized full automatic processing, and the workpiece needs manual assistance when loading and unloading, and the processing efficiency needs to be improved.According to the working conditions of aviation ring parts and the working environment of the robot's system, the robot's working tasks are defined.A task-oriented robot processing system is designed to realize multi-task decomposition by using a two-arm robot to complete the automatic production and processing of aviation ring parts, which is of great significance for improving production efficiency, ensuring processing quality and improving workpiece yield.In order to realize the functions of positioning, clamping, energy supply, cleaning, grasping and error compensation in the numerical control machining of aviation ring parts, a two-arm robot body, a left and right hand end pickup, a machine tool table, a pneumatic connecting rod fixing device and an error compensation device were designed. At the same time, the machining process of aviation ring parts is systematically designed. The kinematics, workspace and trajectory planning of robot are analyzed and calculated to provide support for robot motion control. The details are as follows: (1)The structural design and analysis of robot machining system. Based on the requirement of automatic machining of aviation ring parts, a multi-task decomposition scheme was designed, and the dual-arm robot was used to complete the task. Based on the requirements of automatic positioning and clamping in the machining of aviation ring parts, a machine tool bench was designed. A pneumatic connecting rod fixing device is designed based on the fact that the aviation ring parts can be compressed even after the electrical power supply is disconnected. In order to solve the problems of cleaning and electrical energy supply before and after processing of aviation ring parts, a right hand terminal pickup was designed. An error compensation device is designed to solve the problem of motion accuracy when the right hand end pickup is connected with the power supply. Aiming at the problem of position recognition and grasping of the workpiece to be processed, a left - handed pickup is designed. In this paper, the structure design of robot body, machine tool working table, pneumatic connecting rod fixing device, right hand end pickup, error compensation device and left hand end pickup is carried out. In SolidWorks, 3d modeling and finite element analysis of the main parts are realized, and the prototype is developed at the same time. In addition, the work tasks of the main components are determined, and the machining process of aviation ring parts is systematically designed. (2)Kinematics analysis of robot. Based on the homogeneous transformation of coordinate system and the improved DH parameter method, the positive kinematics solution of robot is solved. The inverse kinematics solution of robot is solved based on the algebraic method. The Jacobian matrix is solved based on the vector differentiation method. The robot model was built in MATLAB, and its kinematic simulation was carried out. (3)Robot workspace and trajectory planning. In this paper, monte carlo method is used to solve the robot workspace, and the visualization of the robot workspace is realized in MATLAB.A variety of joint space trajectory planning methods are introduced and compared in this paper. Through MATLAB simulation, the Angle/displacement, angular velocity/linear velocity, angular acceleration/linear acceleration-time change diagram of each joint of the robot is finally obtained.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/27131
Collection其他
Affiliation中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张兴刚. 航空环形件加工机器人关键技术研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2020.
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