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面向搬运任务的大型冗余机械臂误差分析及补偿研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Error Analysis and Compensation of Large Redundant Manipulator for Handling Task
李娜托
Department空间自动化技术研究室
Thesis Advisor高扬
Keyword冗余机械臂 逆运动学 误差分析 运动学标定
Pages77页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name硕士
2020-05-26
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract随着工业现代化的发展,机械臂越来越多地被应用于工业生产中。常见的机械臂以高精度、低负载的工业机械臂为主,主要用于执行生产线中的搬运、装配及喷涂等任务。随着机械臂技术的迅猛发展,户外的重载作业任务也逐步由人工作业转变为机械作业,其中车载大型机械臂是目前户外重载作业任务中使用的主要机械臂类型。车载大型机械臂凭借负载能力强、工作范围大、运输方便等特点在货物搬运、设备组装等任务中有着广泛的应用。但是车载大型机械臂在使用上仍然存在诸多问题,如:精度低、自动化程度低等。车载大型机械臂的精度问题是困扰其发展的主要问题之一,如何以较低的成本提高车载大型机械臂的精度是国内外学者关注的焦点。通过提高车载大型机械臂的精度,不仅可以拓宽车载大型机械臂的使用范围,还可以为车载大型机械臂的自动化发展奠定基础。本文以车载大型冗余机械臂为研究对象,分析大型冗余机械臂的误差分布规律,并对其进行了运动学标定的研究。通过分析机械臂的误差变化规律,为机械臂的加工和装配提供理论基础;同时利用运动学标定技术提高机械臂的定位精度,满足机械臂搬运任务对精度的要求。本论文的主要研究内容如下。(1)大型冗余机械臂的运动学建模。首先介绍本文的研究对象PK1800机械臂,并根据PK1800机械臂的特点,建立机械臂的DH模型,进而求得机械臂正向运动学的解;采用MATLAB软件建立机械臂的三维杆件模型,验证正向运动学的正确性;介绍机械臂微分运动学的基本原理,给出关节空间与笛卡尔空间的运动转换关系。(2)大型冗余机械臂的逆运动学求解。PK1800机械臂含有移动关节且不满足PIEPER准则(即:机器人的三个相邻关节轴线相交于一点或三轴线平行),根据其特点,本文选用改进人工蜂群算法求取逆运动学的解。根据改进型人工蜂群算法的基本原理,利用MATLAB编程进行仿真求解,得到机械臂的关节变量,并绘制位姿误差的迭代曲线及空间各方向误差的变化曲线,最后利用空间运动轨迹来验证该逆运动学求解方法的有效性。(3)大型冗余机械臂误差分析。详细分析并介绍了机械臂的误差来源;根据机械臂误差源的特点,利用蒙特卡洛法进行机械臂的误差分析,得到机械臂的位姿平面误差、零位误差及关节敏感性的变化规律。(4)大型冗余机械臂的误差建模及仿真。对大型冗余机械臂DH模型的奇异性进行修正,建立MDH模型;基于大型冗余机械臂的特点分别建立了基于位置与距离的误差模型,利用MATLAB进行仿真实验,分析参数误差与采样点数量之间的关系,得到关节参数的辨识结果,并比较两种模型的优劣。(5)大型冗余机械臂标定实验。根据大型冗余机械臂的结构特点,对标定对象进行简化。选用基于距离的误差模型,利用双目测距的原理测定机械臂在空间中的运动距离,将得到的空间距离代入标定程序,辨识得到机械臂的几何参数误差,进而验证机械臂的标定效果,结果表明经过运动学标定后机械臂的精度得到明显提高。
Other AbstractWith the development of industrial modernization, more and more manipulators are used in industrial production. Standard manipulators are mainly industrial manipulators with high precision and low load, which are mainly used to carry out tasks such as handling, assembly and spraying in the production line. With the rapid development of manipulator technology, outdoor heavy-duty tasks have gradually changed from manual operations to mechanical operations. Large vehicle-mounted manipulators are the main types of manipulators currently used for outdoor heavy-duty tasks. With its large load, large working range, and convenient transportation, the vehicle-mounted large manipulator has a wide range of applications in cargo handling and assembly tasks. However, there are still many problems in the large vehicle-mounted manipulators, such as: low accuracy and low degree of automation. The precision problem of vehicle-mounted manipulator is one of the main problems that plagued its development. How to improve the accuracy of vehicle-mounted large-scale manipulators at a lower cost is the focus of scholars at home and abroad. By improving the accuracy of large-scale manipulators, not only expand the use range of vehicle-mounted large-scale manipulators, but also lay the foundation for the automation development of vehicle-mounted large-scale manipulators. This paper takes the vehicle-mounted manipulator as the research object. The article analyzes the error distribution law of large redundant manipulators and conducts the kinematic calibration study. By analyzing the error change rule of the manipulator, it provides a theoretical basis for the processing and assembly of the manipulator. The manipulator kinematics calibration technology is used to improve the positioning accuracy of the manipulator to meet the accuracy requirements of the manipulator handling task. The main research contents of this paper are as follows. (1) The kinematics modelling of the sizeable redundant manipulator is established. This paper introduces the research object PK1800 manipulator. According to the characteristics of PK1800, the DH model of the manipulator is established to solve the forward kinematics equation of the manipulator. Robotics / Toolbox is used to determine a simulation model of the manipulator and verify its correctness. By introducing the basic principles of mechanical arm differential kinematics, the motion conversion relationship between joint space and Cartesian space is given. (2) The inverse kinematics solution of the sizeable redundant manipulator is obtained. The PK1800 manipulator has moving joints and does not meet the PIEPER criterion (the three adjacent joint axes of the robot intersect at one point or three axes are parallel). According to the characteristics of the PK1800 manipulator, an artificial intelligence algorithm is selected to solve inverse kinematics problem. According to the basic principle of the improved artificial bee colony algorithm, MATLAB is used to address the inverse kinematics of the PK1800 manipulator. The iteration curve of the pose error and the change curve of the error in each direction of the space are obtained, and the effectiveness of the inverse kinematics method is verified by using the spatial motion trajectory. (3) The error analysis of the sizeable redundant manipulator is carried out. The primary error sources of the manipulator are introduced. According to the characteristics of the primary error sources, the error analysis is carried out using the Monte Carlo method. The variation rules of the manipulator posture plane error, zero error and joint sensitivity are obtained. (4) The kinematic calibration method for the sizeable redundant manipulator is carried out. The singularity of the DH model of the manipulator is modified, and the MDH model is established. Based on the characteristics of large redundant manipulators, error models based on position error and distance error were established. Simulation experiments were performed using MATLAB to analyze the relationship between parameter errors and the number of sampling points to obtain the identification results of joint parameters and compare the two the pros and cons of the model. (5) The calibration experiment of the sizeable redundant manipulator is carried out. According to the structural characteristics of the large redundant manipulator, the calibration object is simplified. An error model based on distance error is selected. The principle of binocular distance measurement is used to determine the movement distance of the manipulator in space. The obtained space distance is substituted into the calibration program to identify the geometric parameter error of the manipulator, and then verify the calibration effect of the manipulator. The results show that the accuracy of the manipulator has been improved after kinematic calibration.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/27136
Collection空间自动化技术研究室
Affiliation中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李娜托. 面向搬运任务的大型冗余机械臂误差分析及补偿研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2020.
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