SIA OpenIR  > 海洋机器人卓越创新中心
轻型长航程AUV关键技术及控制问题研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Key Technologies and Control Problems of Lightweight Long-range AUV
黄琰
Department海洋机器人卓越创新中心
Thesis Advisor俞建成
Keyword轻型长航程AUV 优化设计 动力学建模 模糊PD控制 模型预测控制
Pages131页
Degree Discipline模式识别与智能系统
Degree Name博士
2020-02-26
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract海洋科学研究的进步与海洋观测技术的发展密不可分。随着海洋观测技术向机器人化观测方向迈进,自主水下机器人(Autonomous Underwater Vehicle,简称AUV)将在海洋科学研究中发挥越来越重要的作用。复杂多变的海洋环境将影响AUV的航行性能,海水密度变化对长航程AUV的影响尤为显著。大范围跨越不同水团、从海表到深海,海水密度变化将超过3%。传统的AUV为了保持航行状态,通常通过主动持续的做功克服海水密度变化引起的净浮力,导致航行效率的降低。 具有浮力和重心自适应调节能力的轻型长航程AUV是面向长时间、大范围海洋环境观测需求,以小型化、智能化、低成本为目标而研发的一种新型海洋观测型AUV。轻型长航程AUV的排水体积和重心位置可自适应调节,使得其可以最大限度减少海洋密度变化带来的航行效率损失。为了提升轻型长航程AUV的续航能力,开展优化设计方法研究是前提条件。而轻型长航程AUV控制相关问题,包括面向可变浮力与重心位置的AUV系统动力学建模、净浮力和重心偏移等关键参数在线估计、面向高效航行的控制器设计等都是轻型长航程AUV需要研究解决的问题。本论文以轻型长航程AUV作为研究对象,围绕设计方法、动力学模型、控制算法以及系统方案设计等方面,开展了面向长续航力的航行控制和关键技术研究,为轻型长航程AUV研制提供理论基础。论文的具体内容如下:(1)对轻型长航程AUV的长续航力关键技术进行了梳理。以提升AUV航行效率为优化目标,阐述了轻型长航程AUV的外形优化方法、桨机体综合优化方法,通过分析AUV零攻角高效航行原理,提出了一种适用于轻型长航程AUV的浮力均衡系统方案并分析了其控制问题。(2)采用机理建模的方法对可变浮力、重心位置的AUV开展动力学建模。根据AUV动力学模型及状态方程中未知参数的产生机理不同,将轻型长航程AUV的模型参数划分为水动力参数和执行机构参数,并针对不同参数开展了参数辨识,获得了轻型长航程AUV的动力学模型参数。针对轻型长航程AUV长航时航行过程中,因环境密度改变引起的自身剩余浮力参数和重心位置的改变量无法直接测量问题,开展了基于卡尔曼滤波的轻型长航程AUV净浮力量和重心偏移量在线辨识算法研究。(3)针对AUV在稳定的海洋环境下的长期大范围低功耗高效巡航的需求,研究了不依赖动力学模型的模糊PD零攻角航行控制方法,实现了垂直面多驱动机构协同控制下的AUV零攻角航行,并进行了系统仿真和实际试验验证。(4)针对AUV在海水密度突变、背景流复杂、近底航行等复杂海洋环境下的高效航行问题,研究了基于多模型预测控制的零攻角航行控制方法。针对重心调节和浮力调节存在耦合问题,建立了浮力和重心分时调节的多模型预测控制器,同时考虑了实际控制输入量的约束情况。通过仿真验证了AUV使用该算法在海洋环境发生变化的条件下保持零攻角航行的能力。(5)开展了轻型长航程AUV——“海鲸2000”AUV的研制。阐述了“海鲸2000”AUV的总体布置、主要执行机构、电控系统、软件系统的设计方案,最后给出了与本文研究相关的海上试验验证结果。
Other AbstractThe progress of ocean science research is closely related to the development of ocean observation technology. With the development of ocean observation technology towards robotization, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) will play an increasingly important role in the field of ocean science research. The complex and changeable marine environment will affect the cruise performance of AUVs, and the effect of changes in seawater density on long-range AUVs is particularly significant. Whether it is across a wide range of water masses or from the surface to the deep ocean, the density of seawater may change by more than 3%. In order to maintain the motion state, traditional AUVs usually overcome the net buoyancy caused by changes in seawater density through active and continuous work, leading to a reduction in transit efficiency. The light weight long-range AUV with adaptive adjustment of buoyancy and the center of gravity is a new type of marine observation AUV developed for the needs of long-term and large-scale marine environment observations with the goal of miniaturization, intelligence and low cost. Due to the adaptive adjustment of the excluded water volume and the position of the center of gravity, the lightweight long-range AUV can minimize the loss of transmit efficiency caused by changes in ocean density. In order to improve the endurance of lightweight long-range AUV, research on optimization design methods is precondition. And the control problems of lightweight long-range AUV, including dynamic modeling of AUV system for adjustable buoyancy and center of gravity, estimation of key parameters such as net buoyancy and the offset of center of gravity, and the controller for efficient transmit, are all the problems that need to be solved in the development of this type of AUV. In this article, the key technologies and motion control methods of the lightweight long-range AUV mentioned above are studied. The main research contents include parameter estimation method, dynamic model, control algorithm and the system scheme design, which provides a theoretical basis for the development of lightweight long-range AUV platforms. The details are summarized as follows: (1) The key technologies of long-endurance of lightweight long-range AUV are reviewed. In order to improve the transmit efficiency of AUV, the shape optimization method of AUV and the integrated optimization method between propeller and body are introduced. By analyzing the principle of high transmit efficiency of AUV with zero attack angle, a type of equalization system suitable for lightweight AUV is described and its control problems is analyzed. (2) The dynamic model of AUV with adjustable buoyancy and center of gravity is established by mechanism modeling. According to the different generation mechanism of unknown parameters in the AUV dynamics model and the equation of state, the model parameters of the light long-range AUV are divided into hydrodynamic parameters and actuator parameters, and parameter identification is performed for different parameters. Aiming at the problem that the change of the residual buoyancy parameter and the position of the center of gravity due to the change of environmental density during the long voyage of the light long-range AUV cannot be directly measured, an online identification algorithm for estimating the net buoyancy and the center of gravity offset of the lightweight long-range AUV is studied based on Kalman filter. (3) Aiming at the low power consumption cruise demand of AUV in a stable marine environment, the fuzzy PD control method for zero attack angle is studied, which does not depend on the dynamic model. The AUV cruising with zero attack angle is realized by the cooperative control of vertical multi-drive mechanism. The controller designed by this method is verified by simulation and experiment. (4) AUV's zero-angle-of-attack control method based on multi-model predictive control is studied to meet the needs of efficient cruise in complex marine environments such as sudden changes in seawater density, complex background flow, and near-bottom navigation. In view of the coupling problem between the center of gravity adjustment and the buoyancy adjustment, a multi-model predictive controller for the separation of these two adjustments is established, at the same time the constraints of the actual control inputs are considered. The simulation results show that AUV can keep the zero attack angle when the ocean environment changes. (5) Carrying out the design of light long-range AUV named "Sea Whale 2000". The general layout, main executive mechanisms, control system and software system of "Sea Whale 2000" AUV are described. Finally, the results of the sea trial are given.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/27162
Collection海洋机器人卓越创新中心
Affiliation中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
黄琰. 轻型长航程AUV关键技术及控制问题研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2020.
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