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SMA驱动系统未建模动态估计与补偿控制方法研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Unmodeled Dynamics Estimation and Compensation Control Method of SMA Actuator System
李晓光
Department机器人学研究室
Thesis Advisor刘光军 ; 赵新刚
Keyword形状记忆合金 迟滞非线性 未建模动态估计 扰动补偿 控制
Pages136页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2020-06-29
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract手的缺失使得上肢残肢者的生活质量受到极大的影响,也给家庭带来了极大的负担。目前世界上先进的商用假肢手重量过大、价格高昂、具有较大的噪声,导致上肢残肢者放弃佩戴假肢手臂。一项关于假肢满意度的调查报告显示残肢者满意的假肢应佩戴舒适、结构紧凑、重量轻、无噪声、且具备执行日常操作能力。针对这项调查,解决上述问题的根本方法是采用智能材料驱动器代替传统电机。形状记忆合金(shape memory alloy, SMA)具有功率重量比大、驱动电压低、驱动电路简单、干净和无噪声的优点,成为假肢智能材料驱动器的首选。然而SMA的参数摄动、非线性迟滞,以及马氏体体积含量和温度难以测量的特性使得系统难以精确建模,从而导致系统的精确控制难以实现,限制了假肢的发展。据此,本论文以解决SMA驱动系统精确力/位置控制问题为主线,以SMA驱动机构为研究对象,开展了深入的理论分析和实验研究,为后续工作的深入开展与研究打下坚固的基础。鉴于上述目的,本论文根据SMA相变机理对SMA驱动机构建立了力/位置机理模型,实时估计了系统未建模动态,针对机理模型和未建模动态信息设计了力/位置控制器。考虑到拟人手指系统可分解为二阶系统和一阶系统串联形式,设计了力-位置双环未建模动态估计与补偿控制器,并在SMA驱动的仿人灵巧手上进行了实验验证。本论文的具体内容安排如下:第1章,综述了SMA的发现、发展过程和应用范畴,论述了现存的SMA建模方法、位置控制方法、力控制方法以及上述方法存在的局限性,从而确定了本论文的研究内容及意义。第2章,根据SMA的热力学模型、相变模型、本构关系模型和力学模型建立了SMA驱动系统的三阶非线性迟滞模型。在该模型基础上,设计了扩张状态观测器,估计了系统总扰动信息,提高了系统模型精度。第3章,针对SMA的三阶迟滞非线性模型探讨了不同扰动处理方式的位置控制策略,设计了基于扰动补偿的输出反馈自适应控制器。该控制器由名义控制器和补偿控制器两部分组成,名义控制器处理系统名义模型信息,补偿控制器抑制系统总扰动。Lyapunov函数验证了扩张状态的收敛性和闭环系统的稳定性。实验验证了所提控制方法能够适应负载、驱动频率变化导致的系统动态特性改变,同时具有较强的鲁棒性。第4章,构建了SMA驱动手指的一阶非线性迟滞模型,设计了SMA输出力的未建模动态估计与补偿控制器。在SMA本构关系模型、相变模型和热力学模型基础上,构建了一阶非线性迟滞模型。通过深入分析应力与应变、马氏体体积含量、温度变化率关系,该一阶模型分解为一阶惯性环节和非线性迟滞环节。将非线性迟滞环节、未建模动态、外扰动集总为系统输出力的总扰动,从而提出了SMA输出力自抗扰控制方案。Lyapunov函数验证了闭环系统的稳定性。该方法简单,调参方便,大量实验表明所提算法能够适应系统动态特性的改变,验证了该方法的有效性。第5章,综合分析了仿人灵巧手系统,该系统可分解为二阶系统和一阶系统串联形式,提出了力-位置双环未建模动态估计与补偿控制方案。该方案以位置反馈作为外环,输出力反馈作为内环。同时受到第3章和第4章控制思想的启发,将力/位置控制环路分别采用扰动补偿策略,最大限度的增强了系统扰动抑制的能力。该方案获取了系统更多的信息,加快了系统响应速度,提高了系统位置跟踪精度。第6章,开发、设计了SMA驱动拟人灵巧手系统。该系统结构紧凑、功率密度比大、重量轻,能够实现不同种类物品的抓取。将力-位置双环控制方法应用在仿人灵巧手系统,手指末端能够到达有效位置,进一步证明了该方法的有效性,为进一步智能交互控制奠定了基础。
Other AbstractThe lack of hands greatly affects the quality of life of the disabled and also puts a great burden on families. At present, the advanced commercial prosthetic hands in the world are too heavy, expensive, and noisy, which causes the upper limbs to give up wearing the prosthetic arm. A survey on the satisfaction of prostheses shows that the prostheses that the disabled are satisfied with should be comfortable to wear, compact in structure, light in weight, noiseless and capable of daily operation. In view of this investigation, the fundamental solution is to use intelligent material actuators instead of traditional motors. Shape memory alloy (SMA), which has the advantages of large power-to-weight ratio, low drive voltage, simple drive circuit, clean and noise-free operation, has been the first choice for prosthetic intelligent material actuator. However, the disadvantages, which include the time-varying parameters of SMA, nonlinear hysteresis, and the difficulty of measuring the martensite fraction and temperature, make it difficult to accurately model, which leads to the precise control problems and limits the development of SMA actuator prosthetics. This paper focuses on solving the problem of precise force/position control of the SMA actuator system, and takes SMA actuator mechanism as the research object to carry out in-depth theoretical analysis and experimental research, which lays a solid foundation for the further development and research of follow-up work. In summary, this paper established a force/position mechanism model for the SMA actuator mechanism based on the SMA phase transition mechanism, estimated the unmodeled dynamics of the system in real time, and designed a force/position controller base on the mechanism model and unmodeled dynamic information. Considering that the anthropomorphic finger system can be split into a second-order system and a first-order system in series, a force-position double-loop controller based on unmodeled dynamics estimation and compensation is designed, and experimental performance is verified on the SMA humanoid dexterous hand. The specific content of this paper is arranged as follows: The first chapter of the paper summarizes the discovery, development process and application of SMA, discusses the existing SMA modeling methods, position control methods, force control methods and the limitations of the above methods, thus determines the research content and significance of this paper. In the second chapter, the third-order nonlinear hysteresis model of the SMA actuator system is established based on the SMA heat transfer model, phase transformation model, constitutive law model, and mechanical model. An extended state observer is designed to estimate the total disturbance information of the system, which improves the accuracy of the system model. In the third chapter, the position control strategies are discussed with the different disturbance processing methods for the third-order hysteretic nonlinear model of SMA, and proposes an output feedback adaptive control method. The controller consists of a nominal controller and a compensation controller. The nominal controller deals with the nominal model information of the system, and the compensation controller copes with the total disturbance of the system. the convergence of the extended state observer and the stability of the closed-loop system are proved. Experiments performance shows that the proposed control method can adapt to the dynamics characteristics changes caused by the external load and actuator frequency, and has strong robustness. In the fourth chapter, the first-order nonlinear hysteresis model of SMA-actuator finger is constructed, and the unmodeled dynamics estimation and compensation controller of SMA output force is designed. Based on the SMA constitutive model, phase transition model and thermodynamic model, a first-order nonlinear hysteresis model is built. Through in-depth analysis of the relationship between stress rate, strain rate, and temperature rate, the first-order model is decomposed into first-order inertial system and nonlinear hysteresis system. The non-linear hysteresis system, unmodeled dynamics, and external disturbances are lumped the total disturbance of the system output force, so the SMA output force active disturbance rejection control scheme is proposed. The theory validates the stability of the closed-loop system. The proposed method is simple and the parameters are easy to adjust. A large number of experiments show that the proposed algorithm can adapt to the change of the system's dynamics characteristics, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/27167
Collection机器人学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李晓光. SMA驱动系统未建模动态估计与补偿控制方法研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2020.
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