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无线传感交通监控网络系统研究
Alternative TitleStudy on Wireless Sensing Traffic Monitoring Network System
袁凌云1,2
Department先进制造技术研究室
Thesis Advisor朱云龙
ClassificationU491
Keyword无线传感器网络 交通监控管理 Rfid 数据收集 时间同步
Call NumberU491/Y88/2008
Pages135页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2008-01-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract无线传感器网络是当前在国际上备受关注,且涉及多学科高度交叉、知识高度集成的前沿热点研究领域。它综合了传感器、嵌入式计算、现代网络及无线通信、分布式信息处理等技术,通过多类集成化传感器协作,完成实时监测、感知和采集各种环境对象信息,并通过无线自组网的方式将信息传送到用户终端,从而实现物理世界、计算世界以及人类社会三元世界的连通。无线通信等技术的发展,拓展了无线传感器网络技术在各个领域中的应用,其中高速公路交通监控则是一新的应用领域。本文在深入研究无线传感器网络技术的基础上,结合我国高速公路交通监控系统的发展现状及其面临的诸多迫切需要解决的问题,提出了基于无线传感器网络的高速公路交通监控管理系统模型、构建方法,并对系统中的数据收集、时间同步等关键技术或问题进行专门的研究,提出了行之有效的算法。主要研究内容包括以下5个方面: 1. 构建了基于无线传感器网络的高速公路交通监控系统模型和框架。针对高速公路交通环境特点以及目前监控系统所存在的种种问题,深入分析了无线传感器网络的特点、技术优势以及可能面临的挑战,提出了基于传感器网络的三层交通监控模型框架。定义和设计了系统的组成及功能;基于系统的固有特点,提出了符合系统要求的网络部署规则和拓扑管理控制方法;搭建了系统软硬件平台,并在此平台上实现了系统的大部分功能。 2. 提出了基于NS2的无线传感交通监控网络仿真模型及系统性能评价方法。传感器网络往往面向某些条件恶劣或不易接近的环境区域,高速公路也属于此类环境,要实地测试网络系统性能非常艰难。因此,网络仿真和实验系统调试是验证其性能优劣的关键方法。依据提出的系统解决方案,建立了无线传感交通监控网络仿真模型。在网络仿真工具NS2现有功能模块基础上,对其进行扩展和修改,添加传感器网络仿真模块和协议,对提出的模型进行了仿真分析和性能评价,并验证了系统的可行性。 3. 提出了一种适合高速公路交通环境的链式数据收集协议。数据收集是无线传感交通监控系统最重要的功能,是实现其后数据处理的基础。由于传感器网络部署呈线性模型、节点铺设密度和传感器网络能量受限,而且高速公路目标经常处于高速运动状态,现有的传感器网络数据收集协议并不能满足其需求,为此,提出了一种新型的链式数据收集协议。该协议针对能量消耗和网络延迟两大因素对网络性能的影响,给出了分层最小化总能量链构造算法,用于动态生成数据收集链,以使得网络生命周期最大化及网络延迟最小化。 4. 提出了基于能量有效的多层分簇时间同步协议。无线传感交通监控网络中,无论是目标的日常监测还是突发性追踪和定位等操作,都需要多传感器节点的共同协作,因此,时间同步协议成为其必不可少的支撑。但现有协议大多仅考虑时间同步精度,忽略了传感器网络能量受限的问题,而且高速公路交通监控环境本身也有其特殊要求,因此,提出了一种能量有效且基于多层分簇技术的传感器网络时间同步协议。该协议不仅采用了多层多跳的分簇技术,且给出了一种能量阈值机制以动态更新簇。协议在保持时间同步精度的同时,能有效地减少能量消耗,在同步精度和能量消耗之间获得一个有效的折衷。 5. 构建了集成化WSID交通监控网络系统。无线传感器网络与RFID技术的集成是未来两大技术发展的必然趋势,尤其RFID的自动识别功能可令交通管理中的目标识别变得简便和准确。因此,本文将RFID技术集成到基于无线传感器网络的高速公路交通监控系统架构中,修改和扩展了该系统的体系架构、节点软硬件结构以及网络协议栈等,并在硬件平台上实现其原型系统。结果表明,该集成和融合不但能有效扩展和完善系统的功能,简化某些复杂性功能操作,而且,推进了两大技术自身的发展。
Other AbstractWireless sensor network (WSN) has received great attention all over the world, and becomes a leading & hot research field involved multi-discipline coordination and knowledge-based integration. WSN integrates sensor technology, embedded computing technology, automatic control technology, wireless communication technology, and distributed information processing technology, and is capable of detecting in real time, sensing and gathering all kinds of environment information by collaborating with multi-sensor integration. The gathered information can be transmitted to the terminal users with its self-organizing and self-healing wireless network, thus, a better connection among physical world, computer and human is available. With new technologies emerging, especially the development of wireless communication technology, wireless sensor network technology has achieved great expansion in various application fields. Aiming at the development status of highway traffic monitoring system in china and its existing problems in urgent need of being solved, in this dissertation, a new traffic monitoring and managing system based on WSN (Wireless Sensing Traffic Monitoring Network System, WSTMN) is proposed based on the well study of WSN technology. Focused on the key technologies and major challenges of this system, such as data gathering, time synchronization, some efficient algorithms and protocols are presented. The main contents include the following five aspects: 1. A highway traffic monitoring system architecture based on wireless sensor network is presented. Focused on the characteristics of highway and the existing problems in current highway traffic monitoring systems, the technique predominance and the challenges of WSN are deeply analyzed, then a traffic monitoring system architecture based on WSN is presented, in which the system composition and functions are defined and described. Respectively according to the inherent characteristics, an optimal network deployment and a topology control method meeting the system requirements are proposed. Moreover, the hardware platform and experiment system are built up, in which most of the system functions are realized. 2. A wireless sensing traffic monitoring network simulation model based on NS2 is established. And the system performance evaluation method is presented. Wireless sensor network is always deployed in some severe condition or unmanned areas, especially the highway as an example, where the system performance tests are stiff tasks. So network simulation and experimental debugging are the key method to validate its performance. Based on the proposed method, the wireless sensor network simulation model and wireless sensing traffic monitoring network simulation model are put forward. By extending and modifying on the existing NS2 modules, and appending some new modules and protocols for WSN, the proposed model is simulated and analyzed to demonstrate its feasibility. Moreover, the system performance evaluation is given. 3. A new chain-based data gathering protocol that adapts to highway traffic environment is put forward. Data gathering is the most important operation of wireless sensing traffic monitoring system, which is also the basis of performing other functions. Aiming at the characteristics that the objects on the highway move with great speed, and the constraints of sensor nodes’ density and energy, a new chain-based data gathering protocol is presented. Considering the energy consumption and the network delay, the layered minimizing total energy chain is constructed to perform data gathering in dynamic, which maximizes the network lifetime and minimizes the network delay. Compared with other data gathering protocols, such as LEACH, PEGASIS, and PEDAP, our proposed method achieved a remarkable performance. 4. A time synchronization protocol based on energy-efficient, hierarchical and dynamic clustering is designed. No matter detecting daily and paroxysmal tracking and location, collaborative processing is essential for wireless sensor network. Time synchronization between the sensor nodes is absolutely necessary. In the existing time synchronization protocols for wireless sensor network, only synchronous precision is considered, while energy constraints are ignored. Considering the special requirements in highway traffic environment, an energy-efficient and multi-layer clustering time synchronization protocol is proposed, and an energy threshold mechanism is presented to create and update clusters. Compared with existing methods, our protocol carried out network-wide time synchronization with higher precision, and moreover, kept energy efficient. It really made a good tradeoff between time synchronization precision and energy consumption. 5. An integrated WSID traffic monitoring system architecture is presented. WSN & RFID integrated technology is an inevitable trend in WSN and RFID fields in the future, Especially the RFID based on automated identification helps the objects identification in traffic management to become more simple and exact. In the thesis, RFID is integrated into highway traffic monitoring system architecture based on wireless sensor network, thus wireless sensing identification traffic monitoring network (WSTIMN) is presented. And its network architecture, node’s hardware and software structure, network protocol stacks and data processing flow are presented and described in detail. Based on the above structures, we modify and extend the traffic monitoring system framework, and implement the prototype system in the experimental platform. The experimental results demonstrated that the integration and amalgamation of RFID and WSN not only effectively expanded and improved the original system function, simplified some complicated function operations, but also improved those two major technology itself.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/272
Collection工业信息学研究室_先进制造技术研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
袁凌云. 无线传感交通监控网络系统研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2008.
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