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用于工业过程监测的无线传感器网络路由协议研究
Alternative TitleRouting Algorithms for Industrial Process Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network
王军1,2
Department工业信息学研究室
Thesis Advisor于海斌 ; 曾鹏
ClassificationTP212
Keyword无线传感器网络 工业应用 路由协议 节能 可靠性
Call NumberTP212/W33/2009
Pages69页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2009-05-25
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract微电子、无线通信、自动控制和人工智能等领域的技术进步,推动了无线传感器网络的发展。无线传感器网络改变了人与自然的交互方式,是二十一世纪最具影响的IT技术之一,在军事、环境、医疗、家庭、工业和其它领域有广阔的应用前景。路由协议是目前传感器网络研究的重要内容,协议设计与网络应用密切相关。在工业无线监测应用中,路由协议设计的主要目标是提高可靠性和降低节点能耗;而传统网络路由协议设计的首要任务是提供高质量的数据服务。这些不同导致传统网络的路由协议不能直接应用于工业过程监测网络。论文针对工业无线监测应用的需求和特点展开研究工作,主要包括以下几方面内容。论述了工业无线传感器网络路由协议设计所面临的挑战性问题,系统地总结了已有研究成果与不足,具体分析了在工业过程监测环境下无线传感器网络的特点和路由需要重点解决的问题。分析了工业过程监测应用对传感器网络的路由需求,并实地测试了工厂车间环境下的信道质量。针对这些工业应用的实际需求,提出了在减少协议开销、降低协议能耗的同时提高数据传输可靠性的路由机制,以满足不同现场设备对数据路由的需求。针对工业过程监测网络中的上行数据量大且具有周期性的特点,提出了一种基于链路质量估计的逐跳多径路由协议。该协议使数据在每一跳的转发过程中都有多条路径可以使用,在提高转发成功率的同时避免了端到端多路径机制带来的大量开销。针对工业过程监测应用中下行数据量少且具有非周期性的特点,提出了基于分布式编址算法的主动路由协议。该协议中,传感器节点分配到下行地址之后就可以计算出下一跳转发地址,从而避免了采用基于广播转发的方式,大大减少了路由开销。同时,单播转发的下行数据不会引发“广播风暴”,减轻了对网络中周期性上行数据转发的影响。针对手持设备所具有的移动性、数据量少和通信不频繁的特点,设计了面向移动设备的低开销按需路由协议。该协议只在手持设备有远程连接需求的时候才建立主路由,然后按需延长,避免手持设备每移动一次就要重新进行路由发现。此外,在路由发现环节利用了已经建立好的主动路由,通过单播方式转发路由发现报文,不但大幅减少了协议开销,同时也保证了所选路由的高质量。为了测试本文提供的路由协议在工厂车间内的实际效果,构建了一个工作在2.4GHz上的验证系统。该验证系统以网络层的可靠性机制为基础,通过在链路层采用TDMA机制、FDMA机制和在传输层重传等机制的配合,达到了较高的报文传输可靠性,证明本文提出的路由协议能够满足工业过程监测应用的需要。
Other AbstractRecent technological advances in MEMS, wireless communication, automatic control and artificial intelligence have enabled the realization of large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSN). The emergence of WSN is changing the way people interact with the physical environment and is considered to be one of the most important information technologies in the 21st century. Routing is vital and also fundamental in WSN’s research. It is very challenging due to the inherent characteristics and a wide range of applications. The main design goal of routing in industrial applications is to gather monitoring data while trying to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and prolong the network lifetime. The primary task of routing in traditional networks, however, is to provide high quality-of-service while trying to prevent congestion. Due to these differences, routing protocols proposed for traditional networks do not fit industrial process monitoring applications well and new routing protocols should be proposed according to the characteristics of industrial applications. The main contributions are summarized as follows. The research on WSN routing is surveyed, while the challenges and design issues that affect routing process in industrial process monitoring applications are discussed. The routing requirement of different devices in industrial process monitoring application is analyzed. In order to access the true link quality field test is carried out in a real workshop. Based on these considerations, energy-efficient routing mechanisms with low protocol overhead are discussed to improve the reliability of data transmission in the actual application environments. In order to satisfy the reliability requirement of periodic data uploading in harsh industrial applications, a low overhead reliable multipath routing protocol for many-to-one data collection in wireless sensor networks. The novelty includes: The real-time link quality estimation is combined with reliable routing selection. Instead of providing end-to-end node-disjoint multipath routing only insures hop-by-hop multipath for data forwarding. The simulation results indicate that this protocol can greatly reduce routing overhead and improve routing reliability at the same time. In order to reduce the energy expenditure we present a low overhead active routing protocol for non-periodic downstream querying data. Each sensor node is assigned a downstream address and the next hop of a downstream packet can be inferred by the destination address. The simulation results show that this unicast protocol can effectively decrease the downstream routing overhead. At the same time this protocol displays less affect on upstream communication than the broadcast based downstream protocols. Handheld device is a type of mobile device for field operation in industrial applications. We present a low overhead on-demand routing protocol for mobile device. The first segment is established as soon as the operator attempt to connect to gateway, and then it is prolonged along with the track. Furthermore, the routing discovery overhead is reduced by use of active routing information. In contrast to other reactive protocols the energy cost and of routing discovery is greatly reduced, while the communication reliability is improved. In order to test these routing protocols a verification system working at 2.4GHz in a factory is build. Besides networking layer the verification environment adds some other reliability and energy-efficiency mechanisms, such as TDMA, FDMA and transport layer retransmission to achieve high message reliability. Field avaluation indicates that these protocols are sufficient to meet the needs of industrial process monitoring applications
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/278
Collection工业信息学研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王军. 用于工业过程监测的无线传感器网络路由协议研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2009.
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