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套索传动原理及机器人应用研究
Alternative TitleThe Transmission Theory and Robotic Applications of the Tendon-sheath
尹猛1,2
Department智能产线与系统研究室
Thesis Advisor徐志刚 ; 刘勇
Keyword套索传动 传动精度分析 动态力交互 五指灵巧手 轻型机械臂
Pages134页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2020-11-25
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract作为机器人的一种驱动方式,套索传动能够在柔性套管变曲率下传递力矩,具有结构简单、空间适应能力强、力缓冲性能好与制造成本低等优点,不仅适应灵巧手与手术机器人等狭窄空间下的驱动需要,在对人机交互安全性有较高要求的外骨骼与康复机器人等领域也有潜在的应用前景。当套索传动机构应用于非线性强耦合的机器人系统时,其自身存在的摩擦以及由柔性产生的空回等因素,将对机器人的重复定位精度及关节力矩感知的准确性产生一定的影响。这对机器人的结构设计与运动控制造成了难度,尤其是对精度和动态力交互性能要求较高的应用场合。套索传动的现有研究尚未形成系统的理论体系,预紧力等因素对套索传动特性的影响不能做出详尽的解释,结构优化缺少理论指导;摩擦力等因素与系统动力学的关系不能完全阐明,控制算法设计的理论依据不足。针对以上问题,本论文的主要研究内容如下所述。(1)单套索传动特性与空回误差补偿 针对套索柔性等导致的单套索传动精度低的问题,提出了一种单套索空回误差的闭环补偿方法,实现了对单套索传动输出端的高精度位置控制。基于库伦摩擦理论建立套索的传动模型,从负载刚度等方面进行实验,研究了各因素对套索开环传动误差的影响。考虑空回、迟滞与非线性刚度的影响,建立单套索传动系统的动力学方程;分别设计前馈补偿等控制器,进行了闭环位置控制实验。实验结果表明,该方法能够将运动误差由6.23mm降为0.82mm,可以有效提高单套索传动系统的位置控制精度。(2)双套索耦合机理与位置跟踪控制 针对套索耦合等导致的双套索开环传动精度难以提高的问题,提出了一种双套索空回误差的闭环补偿方法,实现了套索耦合下的高精度位置控制。基于四象限分析方法建立了双套索传动关节的全域空间传动模型,分析了关节位于不同象限的传动特点,研究了负载质量等因素对双套索位置传动误差与力矩传递效率的影响规律。考虑摩擦力与套索耦合等的影响,基于质量-弹簧-阻尼模型建立关节运动传递函数;分别设计自适应模糊逻辑等控制器,对关节转角进行了闭环位置控制实验。实验结果表明,该方法能够将运动误差由3.52°降为0.42°,可以有效提高双套索传动系统的位置控制精度。(3)套索传动关节动力学建模与力感知 提出了基于变形量的等效力感知方法,实现了无力传感器下套索传动关节的力柔顺控制。根据套索变形量相同条件推导出了关节的动力学模型以及输入输出转角的关系方程,搭建相关实验平台,验证了所建立模型的正确性。基于参数辨识理论实现了关节的力矩估计,实现了套索传动关节的碰撞检测与拖动示教功能。设计关节的阻抗控制器,并在不同惯量、阻尼和刚度系数下进行实验,实现了关节的力交互控制。该方法能够在无力传感器下实现套索传动关节的力感知,对降低机器人力交互的实现成本有重要意义。(4)套索传动灵巧手结构设计与主从控制 基于单套索传动机构设计了十九自由度五指灵巧手,该灵巧手具有结构简单、制造成本低与易于维护等优点。参照人手关节确定灵巧手的构型,基于建立的多指运动学模型分析了大拇指与其它各指的空间交集。采用柔性传感器实现了手指弯曲角度的信号采集,应用变比例映射算法完成了人手对所设计灵巧手的主从跟踪控制。搭建套索传动五指灵巧手系统样机,开展了关节协调运动与物体抓取控制等实验。实验结果表明,该灵巧具有较高的运动灵活性,可以实现对多种物体的抓取。(5)套索传动机械臂系统设计与实验验证 基于双套索传动机构设计了七自由度拟人型机械臂,该机械臂具有结构紧凑、灵活性高与制造成本低等优点。通过仿生分析确定机械臂的关节布局,基于建立的运动学与动力学模型进行了仿真分析。搭建套索传动七自由度机械臂原理样机,开展了关节的单独运动与协调运动等实验。实验结果验证了基于套索传动设计机械臂的可行性,研究内容对轻型机械臂的发展具有一定的理论价值和实践意义。
Other AbstractAs a drive method of the robot, the tendon-sheath transmission can transfer torque under variable curvature of the flexible sheath, and has the advantages of simple structure, strong space adaptability, better buffering performance, and low manufacturing cost. It is not only suitable for the drive in narrow spaces such as the mechanical hand and surgical robot, but also has potential application prospects in the field of the exoskeleton and rehabilitation robot that have high safety requirements for the human-robot interaction. when the tendon-sheath transmission mechanism is applied to the nonlinear and strong-coupling robot system, the friction and the backlash caused by the tendon-sheath flexibility will have a certain impact on the repeatability accuracy and joint torque perception. This makes the structure design and motion control more difficult for the robot, especially in the application requiring high precision and dynamic force interaction performance. The existing research on the tendon-sheath transmission has not formed a systematic theorey. The influence of some factors such as the preload on tendon-sheath transmission characteristics remains unclear, and the structural optimization is deficient in theoretical guidance. The influence principle of some factors such as the friction on the system dynamics is not clear, and the theoretical foundation is insufficient to design the control algorithm. The main research contents of this thesis are described as follows. (1) The transmission characteristics and backlash error compensation of the single tendon-sheath Aiming at the low-precision problem of the single tendon-sheath transmission system caused by the flexibility, a closed-loop compensation method of the backlash error is proposed to realize high-precision position control of the tendon-sheath output end. The transmission model of the single tendon-sheath is established based on the Coulomb friction theory, and the correctness of the model is verified by the relevant experimental platform. The open-loop transmission error of the single tendon-sheath is investigated under different conditions such as load stiffness. Considering the influence of the backlash, hysteresis, and nonlinear stiffness, the dynamic equation of the single tendon-sheath transmission system is established. The feedforward compensation and other controllers are designed, and some closed-loop position control experiments are conducted. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can reduce the motion error from 6.23mm to 0.82mm, and can effectively improve the position control accuracy of the single tendon-sheath transmission system. (2) The coupling mechanism and position tracking control of the double tendon-sheath Considering that it is difficult to improve the transmission precision of the double tendon-sheath system caused by the coupling, a closed-loop compensation method of the backlash error is proposed to realize the high-precision position control. Based on the four-quadrant analysis method, the transmission model of the whole space is established for the double tendon-sheath driven joint, and the transmission characteristics are analyzed in different quadrants. The relevant experimental platform is built to verify the established model, and the position transmission error and torque transmission efficiency of the double tendon-sheath are explored under different conditions such as load quality. The joint motion transfer function is established based on the mass-spring-damping model considering the influence of the friction and the coupling. Adaptive fuzzy-logic and other controllers are designed separately, and some closed-loop position control experiments of the joint angle are performed. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can reduce the motion error from 4.12° to 0.42°, and effectively improve the position control accuracy of the double tendon-sheath transmission system. (3) The dynamic modelling and force interaction of the tendon-sheath driven joint The equivalent force perception method is proposed based on the deformation, and the force compliance control is realized for the tendon-sheath driven joint without force sensors. Based on the same deformation amount of the tendon-sheath, the dynamic model and the relationship equation between the input and output angles are derived for the tendon-sheath driven joint. Depending on the parameter identification theory, the estimation of the joint torque is realized, as well as the collision detection and the hand guiding for the tendon-sheath driven joint. The impedance controller is designed for the joint, and some experiments are completed under different values of the inertia, damping, or stiffness, realizing the force interaction control for the tendon-sheath driven joint. This method can realize the force perception of the tendon-sheath driven joint without the force sensor, which is of great significance to reduce the implementation cost of the robot-human interaction. (4) The structure design and master-slave control of the tendon-sheath driven dexterous hand A 19-DOF five-finger mechanical hand is designed based on the single tendon-sheath transmission mechanism, and the hand has the advantages of simple structure, low manufacturing cost, and easy maintenance. The configuration of the mechanical hand is determined refering to the human hand joints,and the spatial intersection between the thumb and other fingers is analyzed relying on the established multi-finger kinematics model. Furthermore, the flex sensor is used to realize the signal acquisition of the finger bending angle, and the master-slave tracking control is completed for the designed hand using the variable proportion mapping algorithm. The prototype of the five-finger robotic hand is established, and the experiments of the joint motion and the object grasping control are carried out. The experimental results indicate that the designed hand has high motion flexibility, and can grasp many kinds of objects. (5) The system design and simulation analysis of the tendon-sheath driven manipulator A 7-DOF humanoid manipulator is designed based on the double tendon-sheath transmission mechanism, and the manipulator has the advantages of compact structure, high flexibility, and low manufacturing cost. The joint layout of the manipulator is determined by the bionic analysis, and the simulation analysis is performed with the kinematics and dynamics model. The prototype of the designed manipulator is formed, and the motion experiments are conducted for the manipulator joint. The feasibility of designing manipulator based on the tendon-sheath transmission mechanism is verified by the experimental results. The research content has certain theoretical value and practical significance for the development of the lightweight manipulator.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/27973
Collection智能产线与系统研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院大学
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
尹猛. 套索传动原理及机器人应用研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2020.
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