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主从式双冗余机械臂协同控制方法研究
Alternative TitleCooperative Control Technology Researches for the Master-Slave Double Redundancy Manipulators Robot
王勇亮
Department机器人学研究室
Thesis Advisor王挺
Keyword遥操作机器人 滑模控制 灰狼优化算法 主从控制
Pages94页
Degree Discipline控制工程
Degree Name专业学位硕士
2021-05-21
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract目前,虽然各国处在友好和平时期,但恐怖爆炸袭击时常发生。为了消除爆炸物对人民安全的损害隐患,各国研制了各种型号的排爆机器人。但现阶段,载有单机械臂的可移动机器人为排爆机器人的常见样式,然而面对复杂任务时,单臂排爆机器人难以稳定高效地完成排爆任务。因此,拟人化的双臂排爆机器人的研制任务尤为重要。本文针对搭载十六自由度拟人机械臂的六轮排爆机器人,旨在研究主从式遥操作工作方式中机械臂的控制方法。考虑运动学动力学建模的难点及遥操作过程中的可变时延问题,本文针对群智能算法提出改进,用于解决冗余机械臂逆运动学求解困难问题;设计了基于H∞的积分滑模控制器,提高了主从式控制系统抗可变时延的能力,增强了系统的鲁棒性和稳定性;改进了机械臂自主规划算法,提高了系统的智能性。具体内容如下:1、对双冗余机械臂进行运动学及动力学建模。本文研究的双冗余机械臂具有十六自由度,单臂具有七自由度,腰部两个自由度,为具有多自由度的刚体。为解决逆运动学中求解非线性方程组的计算复杂度以及解不唯一的问题,采用改进灰狼优化算法进行逆运动学解算。为提高动力学模型的精确性,降低动力学解算的复杂度,采用“Ju-Kane”法对单臂建立动力学模型。2、基于H∞性能指标的积分滑模控制器设计。由于主端机器人和从端机器人的通信距离较远以及运动学和动力学模型解算耗时,导致主从机械臂之间存在时延问题。且在实际系统中,延迟时间为变量。本文针对主从式双冗余机械臂控制系统存在的可变时延、外部干扰和动力学模型的不确定性设计了基于H∞的积分滑模控制器保证主从端机械臂的实时跟随控制。最后,利用Lypunove-Krasoviskii函数推导出该控制器保持系统稳定性的条件。3、通过仿真验证所提出算法及所设计控制器的有效性。通过Matlab和Coppeliasim机器人仿真平台联合仿真模拟主从机器人系统,实时采集绘制主从两端机械臂的位置和速度信息。最后,通过得到的仿真结果分析应用到实际系统的效果。4、将所提出算法及所设计控制器应用到实物平台进行实验验证。本文的实验平台为主端-从端式双冗余机械臂遥操作系统,主端为可穿戴式外骨骼机器人,从端机器人为搭载在六轮地面移动机器人上的类人双冗余机械臂。主控板为Nvidia Jetson Tx2,基于ROS平台实现所有理论。经过实验验证,本文提出的控制器和规划算法,可在保证精确性的前提下实现主从式双冗余机械臂的实时控制。本文设计搭建了主从式冗余双臂机器人控制系统,重点针对主从式控制模式下冗余双臂的控制方法进行研究。基于本文所设计的控制器,在动力学模型不确定性、外部干扰和可变时延问题下,系统仍可保持稳定,具有一定的稳定性和鲁棒性。对控制方法的研究可以为双臂机器人的研制和开发提供指导性意见,从而进行技术突破,进一步完成拟人化排爆机器人研制。
Other AbstractAt present, although the international community as a whole is in peace, and terrorist bombings often occur. To eliminate the hidden danger of explosive damage to people's safety, various ground explosives ordnance disposal robots have been developed. Nowadays, the ground robot with a single manipulator is common all over the world. Nevertheless, for a robot with only a single manipulator, completing some complex tasks stably and efficiently is so difficult and hard. Therefore, the research for humanoid double redundancy manipulators robot is particularly important. In this paper, we study the core control technology for master-slave teleoperated double redundancy manipulators with 16 degrees of freedom mounted on a six-wheel ground explosives ordnance disposal robot. Considering the difficulty of modeling progress for kinematics and dynamics, and an improved group intelligent optimization algorithm is proposed for inverse kinematics calculation. Additionally, for the variable time delay problem in remote operation, we design a novel integral sliding mode controller based on H∞ theory, which improves the ability of the master-slave control system to resist variable time delay and enhance the robustness of the system. Besides, the autonomous planning algorithm of the double redundancy manipulator is improved, which enhances the autonomy and intelligence of the robot. The details of this paper are as follows: 1. The model of kinematics and dynamics of double redundancy manipulator is built. The object studied belongs to a kind of rigid body with 16-degree of freedom, one manipulator has seven degrees of freedom, and the waist has two degrees of freedom. A creative intelligent method is proposed and used to solve the inverse kinematics calculation aiming to avoid the computational complexity of solving nonlinear equations and then the solution is not unique. The "Ju-Kane" method is used to establish the iterative equation dynamics model represented by the axis invariant for the single manipulator of 7 degrees of freedom to figure out the accurate problem embedded in the traditional dynamic model. Furthermore, this method reduces the complexity of the dynamic solution. 2. Integral sliding mode control based on H∞ theory for the synchronization problem of nonlinear master-slave double redundancy manipulators robot system is designed. However, variable time-delay inherited in the communication channel between the master-slave robot is the major challenge that threatens system stability. In addition, dynamic uncertainty and external disturbance in the practical master-slave robots are unavoidable issues. This also affects the stability of the system and synchronous tracking. For ensuring the real-time following for the master-slave double redundancy manipulators, we design and propose an Integral sliding mode control based on H∞ theory. Finally, the Lypunove-Krasoviskii function is used to solve parameters, which maintain the stability of the system with the designed controller. 3. The simulation experiments are used to verify the feasibility of the proposed algorithm and the designed controller. The information of position and velocity for the joints at both ends of the master and slave are drawn in real-time through the dynamic curve by Matlab and Coppeliasim robot simulation platform. Finally, the simulation results are analyzed. 4. The proposed algorithm and the designed controller are applied to the physical platform for experimental verification. The experimental platform of this paper is the master-slave remote operation robot system, the master end is a wearable exoskeleton robot, and the slave end is a humanoid double redundancy manipulator mounted on a six-wheel ground explosives ordnance disposal robot. The main control board, Nvidia Jetson Tx2, implements all methods based on ROS. The methods in this paper can accomplish the real-time control of double redundancy manipulators under the premise of ensuring accuracy. In this paper, focusing on the control method of double redundancy manipulators in master-slave control mode, a master-slave double redundancy manipulators control system is designed and built. Based on the controller designed in this paper, the system can still be stable and robust under dynamic uncertainty, external disturbance, and variable time delay. The research of the control method can guide the development of the humanoid double redundancy manipulators robot, to make a technical breakthrough and further complete the development of the humanoid explosives ordnance disposal robot.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/28982
Collection机器人学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王勇亮. 主从式双冗余机械臂协同控制方法研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2021.
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