SIA OpenIR  > 海洋信息技术装备中心
双波动鳍仿生水下机器人运动控制研究
Alternative TitleResearch on motion control of bionic underwater robot with double undulating fins
吴梦妍
Department海洋信息技术装备中心
Thesis Advisor张瑶
Keyword仿生水下机器人 波动鳍推进 中枢模式发生器 轨迹跟踪控制
Pages81页
Degree Discipline控制工程
Degree Name专业学位硕士
2021-05-21
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract得益于自主水下航行器(Autonomous Underwater Vehicle,AUV)在海洋开发、科学研究以及海洋安全等领域的巨大应用前景,近些年AUV得到的迅速的发展,各型产品纷纷投入使用。推进系统是AUV的重要组成部分,其提供的推力、效率及尺寸等因素对AUV的设计与使用产生较大的影响。海洋生物中的鱼类经过数百万年的进化,其游动推进方式具有高游动效率、高速度、高机动性和低噪声等特性,因此研究模仿鱼类游动方式的水下机器人,使其兼具灵活性、高效性和隐蔽性,能够在复杂的水下环境中完成救援与勘探等任务成为各国研究人员感兴趣的目标。以蓝点魟为代表的依靠身体两侧胸鳍波动推进的鱼类,能够通过控制波动鳍推进波的方向实现正逆游动和原地转弯,具有较好的低速游动效率和机动性,可在身体不发生形变的情况下仅依靠鳍的波动获得推力,具有良好的稳定性,且波动推进方式对于环境的扰动小,具有良好的隐蔽性。除此之外,因为无需身体运动参与推进过程,所以可大大降低载体结构设计难度。因此有望在低速稳定性、机动性、隐蔽性等方面提升水下航行器的性能。目前模仿胸鳍波动推进方式的仿生AUV主要采用“结构仿生”思路,采用刚性鳍条结合柔性鳍面实现仿生波动。本文围绕双波动鳍仿生水下机器人的设计、研制与实验以及提高波动鳍推进性能方法展开研究。具体研究内容如下:(1)研究波动鳍的运动规律,分析影响波动鳍推进力的相关因素。根据蓝点魟波动鳍的生物特征建立简化的波动鳍运动学模型以及波动鳍动力学模型,并设计波动鳍推进装置,通过数值仿真与试验的方法分析波动鳍的推力特性。有关波动鳍运动参数与推进力之间影响关系的研究已有大量文献,但较少讨论波动鳍的鳍面尺寸等物理因素对于仿生波动鳍推进力的影响。本文在验证了运动参数与推进力之间特性的基础上,更进一步讨论了波动鳍鳍面尺寸、鳍条材质以及鳍面松紧度与推进力之间的关系,分析结果为研制高性能的仿生波动鳍推进装置提供了理论与实践上的参考。(2)双波动鳍仿生水下机器人原型机设计与实现。根据波动鳍推力特性设计波动鳍结构,设计原型机外形结构与电子舱结构,设计原型机控制系统,包括运动单元、通讯单元、传感器单元。(3)仿生波动鳍的节律运动控制研究。基于CPG(Center Pattern Generator,CPG)方法控制仿生水下机器人的波动鳍运动单元。通过仿真分析CPG振荡器数学模型的参数特性从而选取适当的收敛系数配置仿生水下机器人的CPG网络,并根据波动鳍运动规律设计CPG网络拓扑结构,根据直线巡游,偏航和原地转弯等运动策略配置CPG网络输入参数。(4)仿生波动鳍关节轨迹跟踪控制研究。伺服电机驱动的波动鳍因为电机传动装置的间隙、运动损失和迟滞效应导致运动轨迹经常不能很好地匹配输入信号,从而导致仿生波动鳍产生的推力下降,针对此问题,本文提出了基于无模型的前馈-反馈结构轨迹跟踪控制器。该控制器不需要被控系统的模型信息,仅需要被控系统实时的输入输出数据,是一种数据驱动控制方法。控制器基于跟踪微分器设计了相位补偿前馈环节,几乎能够完全补偿伺服电机输出信号的相位滞后,基于扩张状态观测器和非线性状态反馈控制率设计反馈环节,能够很好地补偿伺服电机输出信号的幅值误差,并且在负载情况下具有比经典PID控制器更好的平滑性。通过波动鳍实验装置验证,受到轨迹跟踪控制器控制的仿生波动鳍能够产生更大的推进力,且跟踪控制器对于波动鳍的运动参数变化具有“鲁棒性”。最后,在水池环境下对双波动鳍仿生水下机器人原型机进行了运动测试,结果表明,原型机能够实现直线巡游、原地转弯等运动,且正向游动速度达到1.052 BL/s,反向游动速度达到0.75 BL/s。原地转弯过程中中心点偏移量小,证明了原型机具有很强的机动能力。
Other AbstractThanks to the great application prospect of AUV (autonomous underwater vehicles, hereinafter referred to as AUV) in the fields of ocean development, scientific research and Marine security, AUV has been developing rapidly in recent years and various types of products have been put into use. The propulsion system is an important part of the AUV. The thrust, efficiency and size provided by the propulsion system have a great influence on the design and use of the AUV. Over millions of years, fish have evolved to swim with high efficiency, high speed, high mobility and low noise. Therefore, the research on the bionic underwater robot which imitates the swimming way of fish has become the interested target of researchers all over the world, hoping to make the underwater robot have flexibility, high efficiency and concealment, and be able to complete rescue and exploration tasks in the complex underwater environment. The fish such as bluespotted stingray, which rely on undulating fins to propel, can obtain thrust only by undulating fins without body deformation. This propulsion mode has advantages such as small fluid disturbance and vector propulsion. Because there is no need for body movement to participate in the propulsion process, the difficulty of structural design can be greatly reduced, and the body resistance caused by body swing can be effectively avoided, which is expected to improve the performance of the underwater vehicle in low-speed stability, maneuverability, quietness and other aspects. At present, the bionic AUV which imitates the pectoral fin undulating propulsion mode mainly adopts the idea of "structural bionics", which adopts rigid fin strips and flexible fin surfaces to realize the bionic undulating. This paper focuses on the design, development and experiment of bionic underwater robot with double undulating fins and the method to improve the propulsion performance of undulating fins. The specific research content is as follows: (1) Study the motion law of undulating fins and analyze the related factors affecting the propulsion force of undulating fins. According to the biologic characteristics of the undulating fin, a simplified kinematics model and dynamic model of the undulating fin were established, and a propulsion device was designed. The thrust of the undulating fin was analyzed by numerical simulation and experiment. There are a lot of literatures on the relationship between the motion parameters of undulating fins and the propulsive force, but the influence of physical factors such as the size of undulating fins on the propulsive force of bionic undulating fins is seldom discussed. On the basis of verifying the characteristics between the motion parameters and the propulsive force, this paper further discusses the relationship between the size of the undulating fin surface, the material of the fin, the tightness of the membrane and the propulsive force. The analysis results provide theoretical and practical reference for the development of the bionic undulating fin propulsion device with high performance. (2) Design and implementation of bionic underwater robot prototype with double undulating fins. The undulating fin structure is designed according to the thrust characteristics of the undulating fin. Design the shape of the prototype and the structure of the electronic cabin. Design the control system of the prototype, including the motion unit, communication unit and sensor unit. (3) Study on rhythmic motion control of bionic undulating fins. The undulating fin movement unit of the bionic underwater vehicle is controlled based on CPG (Center Pattern Generator) method. Through the simulation and analysis of the parameter characteristics of the mathematical model of the CPG oscillator, the appropriate convergence coefficient were selected to configure the CPG network of the bionic underwater vehicle. The topology of the CPG network was designed according to the motion law of the undulating fins, and the input parameters of the CPG network was configured according to the motion strategies such as cruise, yaw and spot turn. Thanks to the great application prospect of AUV (autonomous underwater vehicles, hereinafter referred to as AUV) in the fields of ocean development, scientific research and Marine security, AUV has been developing rapidly in recent years and various types of products have been put into use. The propulsion system is an important part of the AUV. The thrust, efficiency and size provided by the propulsion system have a great influence on the design and use of the AUV. Over millions of years, fish have evolved to swim with high efficiency, high speed, high mobility and low noise. Therefore, the research on the bionic underwater robot which imitates the swimming way of fish has become the interested target of researchers all over the world, hoping to make the underwater robot have flexibility, high efficiency and concealment, and be able to complete rescue and exploration tasks in the complex underwater environment. The fish such as bluespotted stingray, which rely on undulating fins to propel, can obtain thrust only by undulating fins without body deformation. This propulsion mode has advantages such as small fluid disturbance and vector propulsion. Because there is no need for body movement to participate in the propulsion process, the difficulty of structural design can be greatly reduced, and the body resistance caused by body swing can be effectively avoided, which is expected to improve the performance of the underwater vehicle in low-speed stability, maneuverability, quietness and other aspects. At present, the bionic AUV which imitates the pectoral fin undulating propulsion mode mainly adopts the idea of "structural bionics", which adopts rigid fin strips and flexible fin surfaces to realize the bionic undulating. This paper focuses on the design, development and experiment of bionic underwater robot with double undulating fins and the method to improve the propulsion performance of undulating fins. The specific research content is as follows: (1) Study the motion law of undulating fins and analyze the related factors affecting the propulsion force of undulating fins. According to the biologic characteristics of the undulating fin, a simplified kinematics model and dynamic model of the undulating fin were established, and a propulsion device was designed. The thrust of the undulating fin was analyzed by numerical simulation and experiment. There are a lot of literatures on the relationship between the motion parameters of undulating fins and the propulsive force, but the influence of physical factors such as the size of undulating fins on the propulsive force of bionic undulating fins is seldom discussed. On the basis of verifying the characteristics between the motion parameters and the propulsive force, this paper further discusses the relationship between the size of the undulating fin surface, the material of the fin, the tightness of the membrane and the propulsive force. The analysis results provide theoretical and practical reference for the development of the bionic undulating fin propulsion device with high performance. (2) Design and implementation of bionic underwater robot prototype with double undulating fins. The undulating fin structure is designed according to the thrust characteristics of the undulating fin. Design the shape of the prototype and the structure of the electronic cabin. Design the control system of the prototype, including the motion unit, communication unit and sensor unit. (3) Study on rhythmic motion control of bionic undulating fins. The undulating fin movement unit of the bionic underwater vehicle is controlled based on CPG (Center Pattern Generator) method. Through the simulation and analysis of the parameter characteristics of the mathematical model of the CPG oscillator, the appropriate convergence coefficient were selected to configure the CPG network of the bionic underwater vehicle. The topology of the CPG network was designed according to the motion law of the undulating fins, and the input parameters of the CPG network was configured according to the motion strategies such as cruise, yaw and spot turn.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/28993
Collection海洋信息技术装备中心
Affiliation中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吴梦妍. 双波动鳍仿生水下机器人运动控制研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2021.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
双波动鳍仿生水下机器人运动控制研究.pd(7820KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[吴梦妍]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[吴梦妍]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[吴梦妍]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.