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水下扇翼推进器动力学特性研究
Alternative TitleResearch on the Dynamics Characteristics of Underwater Fan-wing Thrusters
郜天柱
Department海洋信息技术装备中心
Thesis Advisor林扬
Keyword水下扇翼推进器 水动力学特性 横流风扇 水下推进器 水下航行器
Pages178页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2021-05-23
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract为了提高水下航行器在高航速下的机动性,本文借鉴了空用扇翼飞行器的推进原理。空用扇翼推进器相对于固定机翼加主推的形式,可以为飞行器提供更强大的垂向力,使其具有垂直起降、大迎角不失速以及载荷大等优势。空用扇翼推进器相对于旋翼推进器,则可以使飞行器达到更快的飞行速度。基于此,本文首次将扇翼推进器用作水下推进,着眼于水下扇翼推进器在动力学特性,提出了诸多科学和工程问题,基于这些问题展开了如下研究:①针对“如何定义水下扇翼推进器?”等问题,本文首先给出了水下扇翼推进器的定义。通过对介质因素和航行器因素影响的讨论,得到了水下扇翼推进器的构型。通过计算流体力学仿真,分析了水下扇翼推进器、螺旋桨推进器和固定机翼三者在不同航速和转速下的前向力、垂向力和效率变化情况,总结得到了水下扇翼推进器的独特性。研究表明水介质有利于扇翼推进器发挥作用,其在高航速下可以产生更显著的垂向力,且垂向推进效率高于螺旋桨推进器。②针对“水下扇翼推进器有哪些水动力学特性?”等问题,本文通过水池拖曳和自航实验、计算流体力学仿真和物理模型分析等方法,研究了某典型水下扇翼推进器的水动力学特性。本文讨论了不同航速和横流风扇转速下,水下扇翼推进器的前向力、垂向力、转矩、功率和效率等性能参数,总结得到了这些性能参数的变化规律。此外,还发现了水下扇翼推进器的三个典型特征,包括低航速、高转速下,水下扇翼推进器波动增大等。基于对流场的分析和物理模型分析,本文给出了合理的解释。③针对“如何设计和优化水下扇翼推进器?”等问题,本文对水下扇翼推进器的两个核心零部件——固定机翼和横流风扇——的作用和设计方法展开了深入研究。首先选取了固定机翼的四个主要几何参数,研究了不同几何参数和工况下,水下扇翼推进器的前向力、垂向力、转矩和效率等变化情况。结合流场和物理模型对变化产生的原因进行了解释,总结得到了固定机翼的主要作用为控制来流流入和流出横流风扇,最终给出了固定机翼的几何参数根据不同工况需求的设计方法。接着,本文选取了横流风扇的四个主要几何参数,除了研究其水动力学特性外,还研究了其不同几何参数和工况下的水声学特性。并同样结合流场分析等方法,探究了其变化机理,总结得到横流风扇的作用。最终结合水下扇翼推进器是否作为水下航行器的主推进器,给出了横流风扇主要几何参数的最优设计区间。④针对“水下扇翼推进器的推进机理是什么?”等问题,本文对水下扇翼推进器的推进机理展开了深入讨论。本文首次将环量理论和翼型理论结合,用于解释水下扇翼推进器的运动机理,提出了:水下扇翼推进器的主动涡翼型理论。该理论认为:水下扇翼推进器的运动主要是由来流流过水下扇翼推进器表面所产生的被动涡,与横流风扇自身旋转产生的主动涡的相互作用引起的。本文详细讨论了不同航速与横流风扇转速相对大小的情况下,主动涡与被动涡的相互作用情况,并结合环量理论和翼型理论,给出了水下扇翼推进器的前向力和垂向力的理论计算方法等。本文依据该理论深刻解释了本文发现的水下扇翼推进器的诸多现象的作用机理,并推广到空用扇翼推进器,对短距起降、大迎角不失速以及低压偏心涡的形成等现象进行了深刻解释。⑤针对“如何将水下扇翼推进器与水下航行器结合?”等问题,本文将水下扇翼推进器搭载到了水下航行器中,设计、制作并试验了扇翼水下航行器。本文结合六自由度动力学方程,对扇翼水下航行器展开了研究,通过对方程的简化引出了扇翼水下航行器的设计方法。本文所研制的水下扇翼航行器可以在仅以2个对称布置的水下扇翼推进器作为动力的情况下,实现水下5自由度运动。本文从水下扇翼推进器的定义开始,逐步深入到水动力学特性、各部件的作用和设计方法,再到探究其运动机理的理论本质,最后到航行器实验,系统性地研究了水下扇翼推进器这一全新的水下推进形式的动力学特性,解决了诸多基础性科学和工程问题。本文的工作可以为将水下扇翼推进器搭载于现有水下航行器,解决其高航速下的强机动问题,奠定坚实的理论、实验和设计方法的基础。
Other AbstractIn this paper, underwater fan-wing thrusters are studied, refer to the mechanism of fan-wing aircrafts, in order to improve the maneuverability of the underwater vehicle at high speeds. Compared with the aircrafts with fixed-wings and main thrusters, the fan-wing thruster can provide more vertical force. Therefore, fan-wing aircrafts have the characteristics of vertical take-off and landing, no stall at high angle of attack and larger capacity. Compared with the rotor thruster, the fan-wing thruster can make the aircraft reach a higher flight speed. Therefore, in this paper, fan-wing thrusters are used as underwater propulsors. Based on some scientific and engineering questions we put forward, the following works are studied. ①To answer the questions “How to define an underwater fan-wing thruster?” et al, the feasibility analysis of underwater fan-wing thruster is carried out first: the influence of medium different and vehicle different on fan wing thruster is analyzed qualitatively. And then, an underwater fan-wing thruster, a propeller thruster and a fixed wing are compared at different rotational speeds of the cross-flow fan and different velocities, in the aspects of the forward force, vertical force and efficiency, using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The results show that the water medium is more conducive to the function of the fan-wing thruster, and it can produce more significant vertical force at high velocities, and its efficiency is higher than that of the propeller. ②To answer the questions “What are the hydrodynamic characteristics of an underwater fan-wing thruster?” et al, the hydrodynamic characteristics of a certain underwater fan-wing thruster are studied by towing and self-driving experiments, computational fluid dynamics simulations and physical model analyses. The forward force, vertical force, torque, power and efficiency at different velocities and rotational speeds are studied, and the variations are summarized. In addition, three typical characteristics of the underwater fan-wing thrusters are found, including the fluctuation increase at low velocities and high rotational speeds. Based on analyses of flow field and physical model, the typical characteristics are explained. ③To answer the questions “How to design and optimize an underwater fan-wing thruster?” et al, the roles of the two core components of an underwater fan-wing thruster, fixed-wing and cross flow fan, are deeply studied. Firstly, four main geometric parameters of fixed-wing are selected, and the varieties of forward force, vertical force, torque and efficiency of underwater fan-wing thruster with different geometric parameters and under different working conditions are studied. Combined with flow field and physical model analyses, the reason of the variations is explained. The main function of the fixed-wing is to control the inflow and outflow of the cross-flow fan. Finally, the design method of the geometric parameters of the fixed-wing is proposed, considering different working conditions. Then, four main geometric parameters of the cross-flow fan are selected to study its hydrodynamics and hydroacoustic characteristics under different geometric parameters and working conditions. By flow field analyses, the variations mechanism and the role of the cross-flow fan are summarized. Finally, the optimal range of the geometric parameters of the cross-flow fan is proposed, considering whether the underwater-fan thruster is used as the main propulsor of an underwater vehicle. ④To answer the questions “What is the thrust mechanism of an underwater fan-wing thruster?” et al, a theoretical motion mechanism of the underwater fan wing thruster is discussed. The circulation theory and the airfoil theory are combined for the first time to explain the motion mechanism of underwater fan-wing thrusters. The active vortex airfoil theory of underwater fan-wing thruster is proposed. According to the theory, the motion of the underwater fan propeller is mainly caused by the interaction between the passive vortex generated by the flow passing through the surface of the underwater fan-wing thruster and the active vortex generated by the rotation of the cross-flow fan itself. The interactions between active and passive vortices are discussed in detail under conditions of different velocities and relative rotational speeds of the cross-flow fan. The theoretical calculation method of the forward force and vertical force of an underwater fan-wing thruster is proposed, refer to the circulation theory and the airfoil theory. Based on this theory, the phenomena of short take-off and landing, no stall at high angle of attack and the formation of low-pressure eccentric vortices are explained. ⑤To answer the questions “How to combine underwater fan-wing thrusters with underwater vehicles?” et al, the underwater fan-wing thrusters are installed on an underwater vehicle. The fan-wing underwater vehicle is designed, manufactured and tested. According to the 6 degrees of freedom hydrodynamic equations, the motion of a fan-wing underwater vehicle is studied. By simplifying the equations, the design method of a fan-wing underwater vehicle is proposed. The underwater fan-wing vehicle can realize 5 degrees of freedom underwater motion with only two symmetrical installed underwater fan-wing thrusters. Starting from the feasibility of the underwater fan-wing thruster, and gradually going deep into the hydrodynamic characteristics, the role of various parts and design methods, then to explore the theoretical essence of its motion mechanism, and finally to the actual vehicle navigation experiments, the underwater fan-wing thruster, which is a new kind of underwater propulsor, are systematically studied. The work of this paper can lay a solid foundation of theory, experiment and design method for equip the underwater fan-wing thruster to underwater vehicles, and improving their maneuvering at high velocities.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/29000
Collection海洋信息技术装备中心
Affiliation中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郜天柱. 水下扇翼推进器动力学特性研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2021.
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