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智能测量、建模及加工一体化机器人系统研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Integration of Measuring, Modeling and Manufacturing on a Robot System
王金涛1,2
Department其他
Thesis Advisor曲道奎 ; 徐方
ClassificationTP242
Keyword机器人补偿 结构光测量系统 测量路径规划 自由曲面重建 3m集成
Call NumberTP242/W33/2007
Pages107页
Degree Discipline模式识别与智能系统
Degree Name博士
2007-05-28
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract数字化、智能化和集成化是制造技术目前的发展热点和未来的重要特征,也是二十一世纪先进制造技术的发展趋势。随着测量技术、自由曲面重建技术和机器人加工技术的发展,三者之间的联系越来越密切,将上述技术集成,开发智能测量、建模及加工一体化机器人系统适应了现代制造业的需要,可以提高制造系统的柔性和敏捷性,具有广阔的应用前景。目前对于智能测量、建模及加工一体化机器人系统的研究主要还停留在样机阶段,在系统集成与实现方面还有许多关键问题需要解决。为此,本文以863计划引导项目《智能测量建模加工一体化装备的产业化开发》和中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目《数字化智能制造装备与系统技术》为依托,在分析了国内外测量建模及加工集成技术研究现状和进展的基础上,系统地研究了线结构光测量技术、自由曲面NURBS重建技术和机器人加工控制技术的集成以及集成中出现的相关问题,最后开发完成一测量、建模及加工一体化机器人系统。本文主要贡献概括如下: 1、进行了五轴机器人的补偿技术研究,提出了一种非模型方法与基于模型方法相结合的混合机器人补偿算法,有效解决了单一方法难以解决多种复杂误差源的问题。该混合机器人补偿算法适应了一体化机器人系统工作空间大,精度高等要求,并有效结合了五轴机器人的结构特点。与传统方法相比,它不仅考虑了几何参数误差和非几何参数误差,还充分考虑了非几何参数因素导致的几何参数误差的变化。 2、进行了线结构光测量系统标定技术研究,提出了一种基于探针的手眼矩阵与摄像机外参数矩阵的混合标定算法,并提出了相应的标定补偿算法。针对线结构光测量系统标定中的一个关键问题—手眼标定与摄像机外参数标定,结合手眼矩阵与摄像机外参数矩阵均为常矩阵的特点,应用基于探针的方法,将二者合二为一进行标定;在深入分析标定误差、误差来源及其对测量结果的影响的基础上,提出了标定补偿算法,克服了基于探针标定算法中标定误差受人为操作因素影响的缺陷,简化了其操作要求,同时提高了精度,从而大大提高了探针式标定方法的实用性。 3、进行了线结构光透明件测量路径规划的研究,提出了基于IGES的线结构光透明件路径规划算法与无CAD模型的半自动测量路径规划算法。针对一些形状并不复杂的工件CAD模型由多片曲面片组成的特点,根据张量积曲面的性质,提出了曲面片组合算法,将多片曲面片组合成一整片曲面,为路径统一规划提供模型;与其他线结构光测量规划研究相比,这两种方法都充分考虑了线结构光透明件测量的特殊要求和特点,解决了线结构光测量透明件的难题。 4、进行了自由曲面NURBS重建技术的研究,并针对密集散乱点云数据,提出了一种基于逆向参数化的B样条曲面重建算法。与传统参数化方法由数据点求取对应参数相反,逆向参数化方法根据参数求取相应的数据点,有效克服了传统参数化方法寻找对应点需要反复迭代的缺点;并为B样条的曲面重建提供了一种新的思路,基于逆向参数化的B样条曲面重建算法解决了密集散乱点云传统参数化的矩形拓扑难题,且实验分析表明其在时间效率和精度上较传统算法都具有优势。 5、在解决上述关键技术问题的基础上,完成智能测量、建模及加工一体化机器人系统的开发与调试,使系统达到最终应用要求,为今后的产业化奠定了基础。
Other AbstractDigitization, intelligence and integration are the current hit and future feature of manufacturing technology, and also the trend of advanced manufacturing in the 21st century. With the development of measurement technology, freeform surface reconstruction and robotic technology, the ties among these technologies become more and more strong, so development of integrated robot system of surface measuring, modeling and manufacturing is the need of modern industry, and it can greatly improve the flexibility and agility of manufacturing system with a promising future of application. Presently, research on integrated robot system of measuring, modeling and manufacturing still rests on the phase of prototype, and there are much key problems in integration and implementation. So, supported by 863 projects “Development and Industrialization of Integrated Device of Measuring, Modeling and Manufacturing” and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Knowledge Innovation Project Important Program “Digital Intelligent Manufacturing Equipment and System”, at the basis of the current status of integration of measuring, modeling and manufacturing home and abroad, this dissertation studies the integration of structured-light measurement, freeform surface reconstruction and robot process control, and also related problems caused by integration, and finally an integrated robot system of measuring, modeling and manufacturing are developed. The main contributions of this dissertation are as follows: 1. The compensation of a five-axis robot is studied and a hybrid robotic compensation method based on both modeless and model-based methods is proposed, which solves the problem that common single robotic compensation method can’t deal with too much complex error sources. The hybrid robotic compensation method takes full consideration of the five-axis robot structure and satisfies its big workspace and high accuracy requirements. Compared with traditional common methods, this hybrid method highlights on not only the geometric errors and non-geometric errors are considered, but also the variation of geometric errors caused by non-geometric factors. 2. A probe-based hybrid calibration method of hand-eye transform and camera extrinsic parameters is introduced, and its corresponding compensation method is proposed. As to one of the key problems in structured-light measurement system calibration, the hand-eye calibration and camera extrinsic parameter calibration, taking advantage of their constant property, the hand-eye transform and camera extrinsic parameters are integrated for calibration based on probe method. The compensation method to the hybrid calibration method overcome the major shortcoming of the hybrid calibration method that the operation and measurement error can cause great calibration error, so the operation requirement is simplified and meanwhile the accuracy is improved, then the probe-based hybrid calibration method is more applicable. 3. For the problem of transparent part measurement by structure-light, an IGES-based measurement path automatic planning scheme and a semi-automatic measurement path planning scheme for parts without CAD model are presented. According to the property of tension product surfaces, a B-Spline surface composition method is proposed, which compose several patches of surfaces in the IGES model file into one integrated patch, and then provide a model for measurement path planning. Compared with other studies on measurement path planning, both methods are featured with the consideration of the characteristic and special requirement of transparent part measurement. 4. As to dense unorgnised point cloud, a new inverse parameterization based B-spline surface reconstruction method is proposed. Different with traditional paraterization, which seek parameters for data points, the inverse parameterization seek data points according to parameters, which solves the iteration problem in traditional parameterization. This provides a new idea to solve the B-spline surface reconstruction problem, and the inverse parameterization based B-spline surface reconstruction method avoids the requirement of rectangular topology. Experiments on real application show the advantages of the new method in time efficency. 5. With the above key problems solved, the development and debugging of an integrated robot system of measuring, modeling and manufacturing is finished, and satisfies the application requirements, which lay a firm fundation for its industrialization.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/298
Collection其他
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王金涛. 智能测量、建模及加工一体化机器人系统研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2007.
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