SIA OpenIR  > 智能产线与系统研究室
激光拼焊焊缝质量在线检测技术研究
Alternative TitleResearch on on-line quality inspection of Laser tailored blank Welding
康永军1,2
Department现代装备研究室
Thesis Advisor罗焕佐
ClassificationTG4
Keyword激光拼焊 质量检测 机器视觉 图像处理
Call NumberTG4/K26/2009
Pages50页
Degree Discipline控制理论与控制工程
Degree Name硕士
2009-05-27
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract激光拼焊作为一种新的高质量焊接技术,已经广泛应用于汽车,航空、造船等领域,对提高我国装备制造水平有重要意义。激光拼焊过程中由于焊接装置与焊接工艺的一些时变因素,导致焊接质量存在一定波动,因此,必须对焊缝进行在线实时质量检测,这不仅可以保证焊接质量,而且有助于实现焊接的自动化。目前,国外成熟的激光拼焊系统中,焊缝质量实时检测技术已经成为实现激光拼焊自动化的关键部分。但该项技术国内目前仍处于研究阶段。因此,研制应用于激光拼焊的焊缝质量实时检测系统,实现焊接过程的自动化在学术理论性及工程应用性上具有重要研究意义。本文以激光拼焊为背景,针对激光焊接焊缝质量检测中存在的科学问题和实际应用需求,参考了国外先进的焊缝质量检测系统,应用机器视觉原理对焊缝质量检测方法进行了研究。 本文首先介绍了基于结构光视觉检测原理建立的焊缝质量检测系统。其次重点研究了焊缝质量检测系统的图像处理算法。图像处理算法是整个检测系统的核心内容,其处理的速度与精度直接影响到系统的实时性与准确性。本文依据ISO13919-1 B级焊缝质量标准设计了基于结构光的焊缝图像处理算法。算法主要分三步:首先准确提取结构光光纹中心线,其次提取光纹中心线特征点,最后,根据光纹的几何形状以及所提取的特征点,计算焊缝缺陷参数。第二部分系统介绍了结构光视觉传感器的标定原理及方法,针对激光拼焊焊缝质量检测应用需求,研究了焊缝质量检测视觉传感器直接标定方法。并设计了标定方法的具体实现,通过在局部区域建立光平面到像平面之间的线性函数关系,像平面中的任意一个像点对应的物理坐标,可以通过线性插值算出。实验结果表明,标定精度可以满足激光拼焊质量检测系统的精度要求,且便于工程实现。第三部分针对激光拼焊质量检测需求,进行了焊缝质量检测系统的软、硬件设计及实现。重点研究了软件实现中的一些关键问题,如Windows实现检测系统的方法,进程、线程的优先级,三维重建等。最后在该检测系统实验平台上进行了图像处理算法的精度与速度的验证,实验结果表明图像算法结果满足系统要求。最后,本文对所做的研究工作进行了总结,并对今后的工作进行了展望。
Other AbstractAs a new high-quality welding technology,Laser welding has been widely used in automobile, aviation, shipbuilding and other fields, and has great significance to the equipment manufacturing in China. Because of some time-varying factors in welding equipment and crafts in the laser welding process, there are some fluctuations in the quality of welding. So it is necessary to conduct online real-time weld quality inspection, which can not only guarantee the quality of welding, but also contribute to the implementation of welding automation. At present, real-time inspection of weld quality in laser technology has become a key part in advanced laser welding system abroad. But the technology is still in research stage at home. Therefore, the development of real-time weld quality inspection system used in laser welding is still of great importance in the academic theory and engineering applications. With reference to the advanced weld quality inspection system, the research about real-time inspection of weld quality is conducted to solve the scientific problem that exists in the practical application and to meet the demand of the practical application. In the first part of this thesis, firstly the weld quality inspection system based on the principle of structured light is introduced. Secondly, it focuses on the research about the image processing algorithm of the weld quality inspection system. Image processing algorithm is the core of the inspection system, its processing speed and accuracy influence the accuracy and real-time of inspection system directly. Image processing algorithm is designed based on structures light and ISO13919-1 B-class quality standards. Algorithm is divided into three steps: Firstly, the centerline is extracted accurately from Structured light patterns. Secondly feature points are determined from centerline. Finally, according to the geometry of the centerline and the extracted feature points, the parameters of weld defects are detected and calculated. The second part at first introduced the principle and method of structured light vision sensor calibration. The direct calibration method of vision sensor was studied specially for weld quality inspection applications. Furthermore the calibration method is designed. A linear function relationship is established between plane formed by laser light and image plane in tiny region so that any physical ordinate of the point in the image plane can be acquired through linear interpolation. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the direct calibration lives up to the accuracy requirements of quality inspection system, and is convenient to implement in engineering. In the third part of this paper, the software and hardware of weld quality inspection system are designed according to the demand of quality inspection of laser welding. Some key issues in the software implementation are studied, such as the method to achieve inspection systems by Windows, the priority of process and thread, the three-dimensional reconstruction and so on. Finally, the experiment is conducted to verify the accuracy and speed of the image processing algorithm in the inspection system, experimental results show that the image processing algorithm meets the system requirements. Finally, the research work is summarized,and the future work is prospected.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/518
Collection智能产线与系统研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
康永军. 激光拼焊焊缝质量在线检测技术研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2009.
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