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题名: 光电成像系统性能表征与评估方法研究
其他题名: Research on Characterization and Evaluation of Electro-Optical Imaging System Performance
作者: 徐保树
导师: 史泽林
关键词: 光电成像系统 ; 成像传感器 ; 性能表征 ; 最小可分辨对比度 ; TTP 度量
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2012-05-29
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 光电信息技术研究室
中文摘要: 光电成像系统性能表征与评估方法是系统论证、设计、测试、评价等环节的理论基础。随着光电成像探测技术的迅速发展,如何从系统角度建立性能模型、确立性能指标及评价方法,与构成光电成像系统的光学技术、电子技术、信息处理技术等单项技术一道,成为光电信息科学与光电工程领域的重要研究课题,具有重要的学术与应用价值。 本文以提高光电成像系统性能遇到的制约问题为牵引,开展光电成像系统性能表征与评估方法研究,旨在从系统总体的角度研究光电成像系统性能与光学系统、探测器、信息处理等分系统的物理模型与计算模型;并从系统使用角度建立人眼视觉和机器视觉两种工作模式下系统使用性能的计算模型。研究内容和成果包括: 1、成像传感器性能表征研究。通过研究成像过程的物理机理,以成像传感器的能量传递特性、空间分辨特性和极限探测能力为三条主线,分别给出了成像传感器的响应度、灵敏度和分辨率计算模型;研究了采样成像传感器客观存在的信号混叠问题,据此提出了精确的成像传感器最小可分辨对比度MRC计算模型。与此同时,对归一化探测率D*、噪声等效温差NETD、极限分辨率等关键性能指标提出了简化计算模型,为光电成像系统固有性能预计建立了较为完善的理论体系。 2、成像传感器性能模型的实验验证方法研究。针对各项性能表征模型设计了相应的物理验证实验,验证了模型的正确性。提出了两项创新的测量方法:一是针对调制传递函数MTF传统测量方法存在的采样相位效应问题,提出了一种基于累积直方图的MTF精确测量方法;二是设计了基于楔形条纹的MRC测试方案,通过计算机自动判读楔形条纹,实现了最小可分辨对比度的客观测量。利用噪声计算模型,提出了一种精确且简易的CCD满阱电荷和本底噪声的标定方法。 3、基于人眼视觉机理的性能表征研究。深入研究并完善了目标获取任务性能TTP模型,对TTP模型提出了修正、改进和扩展:根据帕萨瓦尔定理,推导出系统对比度阈值函数的计算模型,修正了TTP模型存在的时间采样积分问题;引入非均匀性噪声因素,改进了TTP模型,使模型对噪声预测更精确;联合了涵盖目标/背景材质、太阳-观测几何、大气传输特性等光电探测对象与条件,给出了目标/背景对比度计算模型,扩展了TTP模型。 4、面向机器视觉的性能表征研究。基于统计理论指出了成像探测识别与跟踪问题的数学内涵;提出了基于CRLB的目标-图像参数估计方法,实现了自动目标跟踪中图像匹配精度的预测;提出了基于最小错误概率准则的目标-图像假设检验方法,实现了成像探测错误率的预测。
英文摘要: The performance characterization and evaluation method of electro-optical imaging system is the theoretical basis of system demonstration, designment, testing and application. By the rapid development of electro-optical imaging detection technology, how to build performance models from the system level, establish the performance indicators and evaluation methods, along with optical technology, electronics technology, information processing technology, have been important research topic in the field of Optoelectronic Information Science and Optoelectronic Engineering. This research has important academic and applicative value. From the constrained problem in improve performance of electro-optical imaging system, this paper carry out the study of performance characterization and evaluation method. One aim is to establish the relationship of system inherent performance and design parameters of subsystem such as optical system, detectors from overall system perspective. Another aim is to establish the relationship of system operational performance and system parameters at two operating modes for human vision and machine vision from system operational perspective. The study includes the following four parts: 1. Performance modeling of imager. Through the study of the physical mechanism of the imaging process, with the three basic characteristics of imager: the energy transfer characteristics, the limited detection ability and spatial resolution performance, the responsivity, sensitivity and resolution computing models of the imager are proposed. By consider the sampled imager signal aliasing problem, objective imager minimum resolvable contrast calculation model is proposed. In addition, a simplified calculation model for the normalized detectivity (D*), the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), limiting resolution and other commonly used performance indexes is proposed. A more complete theoretical system of the inherent performance of the electro-optical imaging system has been established. 2. The experimental method to verify imager models. For the problem to verify responsivity, sensitivity, resolution and minimum resolvable contrast computational models, the experimental platform and system has been built. The physical experiments have been designed and developed. The correctness of characterization models has been verified. Two innovative measurement methods were developed by physical experiments. First, for the sampled phase problem of traditional MTF measurement, an accurate measurement method was proposed based on cumulative histogram. Second, the MRC test chart was designed based on wedge-shaped stripes. Automatic interpretation of the wedge-shaped stripe pattern was developed. In addition, an accurate and simple method to calibration full well charge and readout noise of CCD is proposed based on the noise calculation model. 3. Performance modeling of electro-optical imaging system based on human visual mechanism. Through theoritical analysis of the Targeting Task Performance (TTP) model, a correction, an improvement, an extension has been achived. According to Parseval theorem, the system contrast threshold function computational model was proposed through derivation in detail, the time integral sampling problems is TTP model has been corrected. Non-uniformity noise has been added to improve the TTP model. By combination of the materials of target background, the sun-observation geometry, the atmospheric transmission, a fine target and background contrast calculation model has been proposed to extend the TTP model. 4. Performance modeling of electro-optical imaging system used as machine vision. The mathematical nature of detection, recognition and tracking based on statistical theory was proposed. An object-image parameter estimation method was proposed based on Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), that the prediction of image matching accuracy has been achieved in automatic target tracking. An object-image hypothesis testing method was proposed based on the minimum error probability criterion, that the prediction of imaging detection error rate has been achieved..
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9082
Appears in Collections:光电信息技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
徐保树.光电成像系统性能表征与评估方法研究.[博士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2012
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