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题名: 拟人灵巧手机构及抓取理论研究
其他题名: Study on Dexterous Hand Mechanism and Multi-fingered Grasping Theory
作者: 刘玉旺
导师: 周维佳 ; 王洪光
分类号: TP241
关键词: 拟人灵巧手 ; 关节耦合 ; 抓取可行性 ; 多指操作 ; 平衡抓持
索取号: TP241/L76/2010
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010-01-31
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 空间自动化技术研究室
中文摘要: 拟人灵巧手研究已成为当今机器人学领域的热门课题之一。与普通机器人末端夹持手相比,拟人灵巧手具有稳定抓持和灵巧操作等能力,可完成精密复杂的作业任务,从而可很好的服务于工业、农业、医疗、教育、娱乐、服务、航空航天及军事等领域。在机器人学国家重点实验室课题“拟人灵巧手研制”的资助下,本文在对国内外文献调研与综述的基础上,针对拟人灵巧手机构和多指抓持操作等重点问题进行了系统的理论分析和仿真试验研究,具体如下:   1) 首先研究了拟人手构型中的手指构型。将手指分成独立驱动手指、欠驱动手指和关节耦合手指等三种构型,重点分析了欠驱动手指和关节耦合手指的实现形式。在对关节耦合手指构型分析的基础上,提出了两种基于连杆机构的新型1DOF关节耦合手指,并对1DOF手指的解耦方式进行了探讨。在整体尺寸和各关节受力相同的条件下,新提出手指构型结构更紧凑、更符合灵巧手设计需求。 2) 在对手指进行研究的基础上,基于人手结构和抓取需求,设计了三指拟人灵巧手。研究了1DOF手指及其解耦生成的2DOF手指的运动学、连杆参数确定和受力分析等问题。参数优化时,提出了一种基于几何特征运动学的参数优化方法,该方法不需加约束限制连杆机构的交叉,计算量小,易于操作。在对手指进行研究的基础上,根据人手结构和抓取需求,设计了三指7DOF拟人灵巧手。进而分析了灵巧手的运动学,确定了灵巧手的工作空间,求解了灵巧手的雅克比矩阵,为后面的抓持操作理论研究奠定了基础。    3) 基于对多指手运动学、物体外表面及多指手外表面的分析,提出了一种判定多指手抓取运动学可行性的新方法。通过选择合理的剖分方式,将三维空间问题转换到二维空间中分析,进而推导了判定抓取干涉的算法,提出了相应的判定准则,通过算例验证了所提方法的正确性和有效性。该方法通用性好、计算效率较高,可用于分析不规则形状手指和手掌对任意表面形状物体抓取的可行性问题。   4) 针对多指指尖抓取的接触力求解问题,用求解法及优化法两种方法确定了有效接触力。求解法中,建立了抓取平衡方程,计算了抓取矩阵的广义逆矩阵,推导了抓取平衡方程的特解和通解,分析了方程的解与抓取操作力及抓取内力之间的关系;优化法中,推导了接触点处的摩擦约束不等式,并基于抓取平衡方程,对多指抓取的接触力进行了规划研究。   5) 研究了多指操作运动学问题。在对接触点不变操作分析的基础上,考虑了接触点时变操作时接触点处的相对运动,建立了接触点时变操作的运动学方程,并进行了操作运动学方程求解;分析了滚动操作的接触运动学,计算了接触点在物体和指尖表面的运行情况;发现并分析了接触点时变对多指手雅克比矩阵、抓取矩阵及多指操作的影响,提高了多指操作运动学方程的精度。最后,结合实例验证了所研制多指手的灵巧操作能力。本文的工作丰富了拟人手指构型,为多指抓取操作研究提供了可以借鉴的理论,有助于推动多指灵巧手机构和抓取理论的发展。
英文摘要: Study on multi-fingered dexterous hand has become to be a studying-hotspot in robotics domain. Multi-fingered hand can stably hold and dexterously manipulate tools, so it can perform complex tasks and can be used in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, education, entertainment, serving, aviation and military. Under the imbursing of Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Robotics, this thesis researches the finger mechanics and manipulation theory systematically after comprehensive literature review. 1) The finger configuration is studied. The underactuation and motion-coupling used in existing anthropomorphic finger is firstly reviewed. Based on the analysis of the existing motion-coupling anthropomorphic finger, we propose two new 1-DOF motion-coupling anthropomorphic fingers based on linkage. The two new proposed fingers are more compact than the existing 1-DOF fingers based on linkage. Also the decoupling of 1-DOF finger is analyzed. 2) We design a 7 DOF three-fingered robotic hand, based on the configuration of human hand and the grasping assignment. The geometry-based kinematics and the statics of all the 1-DOF six-link motion-coupling fingers and their decoupling structures are deduced. The links’ parameters in the motion-coupling and decoupling fingers are defined using optimization method based on the new deduced kinematics. As a result, we need not to apply abstract constraints to ensure the two four-link mechanisms in the finger are crossed. The new proposed fingers more compacter than the existing motion-coupling fingers, also the new ones are easier to driven, consuming lower energy and driving torque. Based on the study about the finger, we design a 7-DOF three-finger robotic hand. 3) A unified computational framework for the kinematic feasibility analysis of grasping is proposed. In the study, the kinematics of multi-fingered hand is deduced; the transition of grasping-element’s equation between different coordinate-systems is analyzed; and the detecting of the relationship between two 3D outer surfaces is then analyzed in 2D space; the arithmetic and rules of the detecting are given. The proposed method can be used in a biger range, and has higher efficiency. 4) The contact force is obtained through resolving method and optimizing method respectively. In the resolving method, the force-balance equation is deduced. And the contact fore is got by resolving the equation. In the optimizing method, the friction inequation restrictions, the force-balance equation, and the goal function are given. As a result, the contact force of grasp can be obtained by programming. 5) The manipulation kinematic equation is deduced, in which the contact-point kinematics is considered. And the solution of the kinematic equation is given. The kinematics of contact point during pure rolling is studied. Also the influence of the contact point movement on hand Jacobin matrix and Grasping matrix is found and analyzed, which increase the precision of the manipulation kinematics.In conclusion, the study in this paper provides new finger configurations and validated multi-fingered grasping theory, which can help to advance the dexterous robotic hand mechanism and grasping theory.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9249
Appears in Collections:空间自动化技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
刘玉旺.拟人灵巧手机构及抓取理论研究.[博士 学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2010
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