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基于打磨机器人的力控制技术及应用研究
Alternative TitleResearch and Applicationon of Force Control Technology for a Grinding Robot
张庆伟1,2
Department其他
Thesis Advisor徐方
ClassificationTP242
Keyword机器人 力控制 坐标系标定 重力补偿
Call NumberTP242/Z33/2012
Pages80页
Degree Discipline模式识别与智能系统
Degree Name硕士
2012-05-28
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract随着科学技术的进步和制造业的不断发展,市场对打磨加工的需求不断增长。传统的研磨抛光主要是依靠人工进行,不仅费时费力、效率低下,而且产品均一性差,精度不高。另外,工业现场环境恶劣,噪声、粉尘严重影响工人的健康。所以,打磨机器人的研究得到了广泛的关注。 工件打磨的精度和均一性很大程度上决定于打磨工具和工件接触面法向力是否保持恒定。打磨机器人要完成打磨操作必须要求机器人具有接触力的感知和控制能力,对力感知和控制能力的好坏决定了机器人打磨的效果和品质,因此力控制技术是打磨机器人系统中的关键和核心技术。虽然力控制技术经过了多年的研究和发展,但是它仍然是柔性自动化产业中的难点和“瓶颈”,其理论研究和技术实现都面临着不少亟待解决的难题。 本文在前人研究成果的基础上,依托新松公司“力控制实验平台搭建”项目,对机器人力控制技术进行了研究。首先应用工程法建立了新松RH06型工业机器人运动学模型和机器人雅可比矩阵,为下一步机器人的控制提供了模型基础。在此基础上建立了机器人控制器和力传感器之间通信的实验平台,并完成了相应程序的开发,实现了机器人控制器和力传感器之间的通信,完成了力信号的采集和获取。由于机器人工作一般环境较为恶劣,现场存在高频噪声,会对力传感器的测量产生干扰,故本文设计了基于巴特沃斯的力传感器滤波算法,仿真结果表明,该方法能很好地抑制高频噪声,减少高频噪声对力传感器测量数据的影响。 在上述工作的基础上,本文设计了力传感器坐标系的标定算法,实验结果表明该算法可以减少由于机械安装而产生的误差,从而提高测量的力在坐标系之间转换的精度。由于打磨工具重力在不同姿态下会对力传感器的测量值产生影响,故本文设计了打磨工具重力补偿算法,实验结果表明,该算法可以明显的减少由于打磨工具姿态变化而产生的对力传感器的干扰,提高了力传感器测量数据的抗干扰性。 最后本文结合阻抗控制和力/位混合控制的思想,设计了基于阻抗变换的力/位混合控制算法并进行了仿真实验,仿真结果表明,该算法可以满足力控制对位置和力两方面控制的要求。
Other AbstractWith the development of science and manufacturing, the market demand of grinding is increasing. Traditional grinding and polishing jobs are mostly implemented by skilled workers, which is time consuming, inefficient. And it is difficult to assure the consistency and high precision of production. In addition, the noise and dust produced by the grinding and polishing processing are not good for human health. So the research on the grinding and polishing robots are widely developed. The grinding accuracy and uniformity of the workpiece is largely determined by the constant normal force between the grinding tool and the workpiece. In order to complete the grinding operation, the capability of sensoring and controlling the contact force is required for the grinding robot. This capability determines the quality of the grinding, so force control technology is the key and core technology of grinding robot system. Although force control technology has been studied for many years, it is still the difficulty and the "bottleneck" of the flexible automation industry, the theory and technology are faced with many urgent problems to be solved. On the basis of previous research results, the robot force control which relies on the project of “The build of the force control experimental platform” supported by SIASUN Robot & Automation Co., Ltd is studied. First, kinematics and jacobian in an engineering coordinate for a SIASUN RH06 robot are established, which is the base model for robot control. Second, the communication experimental platform between the robot controller and the force sensor is established. The program of the communication between the robot controller and the force sensor has been developed. Industry robot usually works at a adverse environment, there are lots of high frequency noises which will affect the force sensor measuring, so a butterworth low pass filter is designed. The simulation results show that this method can restrain the high frequency noise and reduce the impact of the high frequency noise on the force sensor measurement. Based on the above work, a calibration algorithm for the force sensor frame is designed. The experiment results show that this algorithm can reduce the error of the force sensor frame due to the mechanical installation and improve the accuracy of the force transformation between the frames. Due to the gravity of the grinding tool in a different orientation will impact the measured value of the force sensor, a gravity compensation algorithm of the grinding tool is designed. The experiment results show that this algorithm can significantly reduce the interference of force sensor which due to the change of grinding tool’ orientation and improve the anti-interference capability of the force sensor. Finally, a impedance transformation-based hybrid force / positon control algorithm is developed, which combines with impedance control and hybrid force / position control. The simulation results show that this algorithm can satisfy the position control and force control.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9255
Collection其他
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张庆伟. 基于打磨机器人的力控制技术及应用研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2012.
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