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题名: 真空机械手碰撞检测及轨迹优化
其他题名: Collision Detection and Optimal Trajectory Planning for Vacuum Robot
作者: 邹风山
导师: 曲道奎 ; 徐方
分类号: TP241
关键词: 真空机械手 ; 碰撞检测 ; 轨迹规划 ; 开放式控制系统
索取号: TP241/Z94/2011
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011-06-03
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 其他
中文摘要: 真空机械手是IC制造装备的重要组成部分,它在半导体加工行业中在真空环境下进行硅片的传输和定位工作。特殊的行业应用需求对真空机械手的洁净度、控制精度、运动性能和可靠性等指标提出了极高的要求。 随着世界半导体产业的发展,真空机械手的国际和国内市场也在迅速扩大。目前国外公司垄断了真空机械手的全球市场。研发具有自主知识产权的真空机械手对于满足国内市场需求, 提高我国高科技产品的竞争力有着重要意义。因此本课题以国家科技重大专项“IC装备机械手及硅片传输系统系列产品研发与产业化”为依托进行了真空机械手产业化应由关键技术的研究,提高真空机械手的性能指标,满足集成电路制造行业的应用需求。 为了使真空机械手能够快速、平稳、高效的在真空环境下传送和定位硅片,本课题根据真空机械手的技术特点,对影响其产业化应用的关键技术问题进行了研究,以确保真空机械手运动的平稳性、准确性、快速性和可靠性,文中研究工作主要从四个方面展开:真空机械手碰撞保护方法研究、真空机械手最优轨迹规划研究以及真空机械手偏差检测及动态轨迹修正。 (1) 提出了基于位置误差与电流偏差的无传感器碰撞检测保护方法,针对真空机械手运行过程中的安全问题,通过分析驱动器电流和码盘反馈值的变化及影响因素:分别建立了基于模糊推理的位置误差和自学习的电流偏差的碰撞保护系统,该系统采用模糊控制器来确定位置误差的阈值,通过机械手的自学习过程,确定电流偏差及电流变化率的阈值,提高了碰撞判断的准确性与灵敏性。 (2) 提出了一种考虑机械手运行效率与平稳性的轨迹优化算法,为了避免真空机械手运行中由于振动造成晶圆滑动或脱落且要尽量提高生产效率,真空机械手的运动要求在保证高速高精度的同时尽量减小系统的残余振动,保证轨迹的平滑性;文中给出了一种非对称的轨迹规划算法,并给出了各种轨迹形状下的完整算法及实现,该方法兼顾机械手的运行效率与平稳性,同时根据机械手带片运行的摩擦力限制条件,给出了一种机械手带片运行的轨迹优化方法。 (3) 提出了一种动态真空机械手偏差检测与校正方法,针对真空机械手多工位晶圆传输中的位置偏移问题,提出了一种采用传感器的位置偏移检测方法,该方法可以在机械手取放晶圆的过程中动态检测晶圆滑动的位置偏差;同时还给出了一种动态轨迹规划算法,可以根据检测的偏差进行动态实时的修正,提高了机械手晶圆传输的效率和可靠性。 (4)提出了一种基于CAN总线的开放式模块化机器人控制器体系机构,在CAN总线硬件开放特性的基础上,给出了一种基于Linux操作系统的开放式的软件应用框架,建立一个完全开放式的软件开发平台,该系统平台可以方便扩展、定制不同的应用软件模块和操作系统模块,并且在各种硬件平台间具有良好的移植性。以该平台为基础,针对真空机械手的应用需求进行二次开发,实现了适合真空机械手需求的开放式机器人控制系统。
英文摘要: Vacuum robot is commonly used in the vacuum chambers for handling work pieces such as semiconductor wafers, and other like substrates; it is the key equipment of integrated circuit manufacturing. Due to special requirement of industrial application, vacuum robot needs to meet high technical specifications such as cleanliness, control precision, motion performance, and reliability. With the development of the world's semiconductor industry, the market of vacuum robot is also rapidly expanding. Besides the absolute monopoly of the global market, the foreign companies impose strict export restrictions and technological blockade on china. Domestic R & D of the vacuum robot with independent intellectual property rights will make meet domestic market demand and improve the competitiveness of China's high-tech products. This subject researches the key technology of vacuum robot for industrialization which has been financed by the Important National Science & Technology Specific Projects. The aim is to enhance the performance of vacuum robot and satisfy the needs of Integrated Circuit manufacturing. The thesis analyzes the key issues which affect the performance of the vacuum robot's motion and industrialization according to the technical features of vacuum robot. In order to insure reliability, stability,accuracy and rapidity for vacuum robot, in this paper four aspects are developed: Collision detection and protection, optimal trajectory planning, dynamic eccentricity detection and modify, and opening robot control system. (1) The thesis proposed the sensor less collision detection method based on position error and current deviation to protect the vacuum robot and semiconductor wafers in the operation process. Through the research of vacuum robot’s position error and current deviation change, Collision detection systems based on the fuzzy deduce of position error and self-learning current deviation separately. In position error system, a fuzzy controller is used to get the threshold of position error. And in current deviation system, a self-learning method is used to get thresholds of the current deviation and its change rate. The sensitivity and the accuracy of collision detection are enhanced obviously. (2) In order to avoid wafer glide or fall off caused by vibration and raise the productivity as far as possible, the vacuum robot needs high-precision and high-speed motion and reduce the residual vibration. This thesis researches an optimal trajectory planning method witch takes account of the efficiency and the stability of vacuum robot motion to obtain smooth profile. The proposed method is an asymmetric trajectory planning method with jerk bounded and all possible profile shapes for the asymmetric trajectory planning are also discussed. And then an optimal profile is given with the limitation of friction when vacuum robot moving with a wafer. (3) In view of the wafer deviation when vacuum robot transfer wafer in some stations, the thesis researches a dynamic deviation detection and modify method which uses sensors to detect position deviation in the process of vacuum motion. And also a dynamic trajectory planning is proposed to modify the motion profile according to the detection deviation. The efficiency and the reliability for the process of wafer transfer are increased. (4) An openness and modular robot controller architecture is researched based on CAN bus. This paper discussed an opening software architecture based on Linux operating system with the CAN bus hardware platform. On the platform both the application software modules and the operating modules can be extended and integrated. And the system can be ported to other hardware platform easily. On the basis of the platform, the vacuum robot control system is re-development which satisfies the vacuum root applications.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9259
Appears in Collections:其他_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
邹风山.真空机械手碰撞检测及轨迹优化.[博士学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2011
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