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题名: 基于可旋转推进器的水下机器人运动控制研究
其他题名: Research on Motion Control of Underwater Vehicle Based on Rotatable Thruster
作者: 凌波
导师: 李硕
分类号: TP242
关键词: 可旋转推进器 ; 能耗 ; 水下机器人 ; 运动控制
索取号: TP242/L66/2011
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2011-05-27
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 水下机器人技术研究室
中文摘要: 水下机器人作为一种先进的水下运动平台,可携带多种传感器和设备用于海洋科学考察和环境监测,取得有价值的科学资料。随着陆地资源的开发殆尽,海洋资源的开发和利用对经济增长的推动作用日趋明显,人类对海洋开发和利用的需求更加强烈。因此,全面深入认识海洋、开发海洋、利用海洋和保护海洋具有重大战略意义。为了有效延长水下机器人特别是AUV的水下作业时间,本论文从降低水下机器人推进系统功耗的角度开展有关研究工作。 推进器通常是水下机器人消耗能源最大的单元,目前水下机器人的推进器大都是固定安装,每个自由度的运动控制通常由一个或多个推进器来完成,这样为了实现水下机器人多自由度的运动控制,往往在载体上安装多个推进器,增大了功率消耗。本文通过改变推进器的安装方式,提高水下推进器的工作效率,用少量的推进器来实现更多自由度的运动控制,降低功耗,延长水下作业时间。 使用固定安装的螺旋桨推进器通常通过改变螺旋桨旋转方向来产生不同方向的推力,为了追求某一方向上推力,螺旋桨在正反转时推力有明显的不同。为了最大限度地发挥螺旋桨在某一方向上的最大推力,通过改变推进器的工作状态,使其始终保持在最优方向上工作,就可以提高其工作效率,降低能量损耗。 基于上述旋转推进器的特点,本文在充分考虑可旋转推进器机械结构复杂度的前提下,为了实现旋转推进器的运动控制,在设计推进模块的基础上,搭建了一个简易的水下机器人运动控制系统,便于开展独立的研究工作。本文从控制系统硬、软件两方面开展了研究设计工作。在硬件上进行了总体设计和装调,实现可旋转推进器运动控制功能;在软件上进行了相应的模块化设计,保证了基于可旋转推进器的水下机器人系统稳定运行。 主要工作包括:(1)可旋转推进系统硬件系统设计。首先对硬件系统总体框架进行了详细的研究;然后根据控制系统的需要介绍了设备的选型及特点;最后对各功能子单元进行了分别介绍。(2)可旋转推进系统软件系统设计。首先从总体上详细研究了可旋转推进器控制系统的结构和组成;然后对水面控制软件进行了通信单元的设计和人机交互界面的设计;最后进行了系统移植和对水下控制软件的模块化设计;(3)可旋转推进器系统仿真。首先进行了坐标系定义、坐标变换工作;然后建立了可旋转推进器的推力模型;最后进行了水下机器人控制任务的分析并提出了完成任务的具体约束条件;(4)可旋转推进器试验研究。对装有可旋转推进器的水下机器人进行陆上和水池试验并通过对数据的分析说明了可旋转推进器设计的合理性和正确性。
英文摘要: The underwater vehicle as an advanced underwater motional platform can carry a variety of underwater sensors and equipment to inspect and monitor the marine science obtaining valuable scientific data. With exhausted of land resources, to exploit and use the marine resources will significantly promote the economic growth and the demand of human exploiting and utilizing the marine resources is more and more strongly. Therefore, to understand oceans across-the-board and in-depth, exploiting oceans, utilizing of marine resources and to protect oceans is of great significance. In order to effectual prolong the underwater operating time of underwater vehicle especially AUVs , this thesis has done the research work from the point of reducing the power of underwater propulsion system. The thrusters are usually the unit to consumpe most energy of underwater vehicle. At present, most thrusters of underwater vehicle are fixed installation. For this reason the motion control of each DOF is completed by one or more thrusters, so we usually install several thruster on underwater vehicle to achieve motion control of more DOFs that increases the power consumption. This thesis will improve the efficiency of thrusters by changing the thrusters installation and using less thrusters achieve motion control of more DOFs, decrease the power consumption, prolong the underwater operating time. Usually we change the rotate direction of the thrusters to generate different thrust using fixed thrusters. In pursuit of a different direction thust, the thrust is significantly different when the thruster in reversing. In order to maximize the maximum thrust efficiency in either direction, by change the working estate of thrusters to make it always work on the optimal direction we will improve efficiency and decrease the power consumption of thrusters. Based on the characteristic of the rotate thruster and in the primise of the complexity of mature mechanism structure of rotate thruster, in order to achieve the motion control of rotate thruster we build a simple motion control system of underwater vehicle on the basis of design the module to carry out independent research work.We design the control system from aspects of hardware and software. We design, assemble, debug the hardware system as a whole to achieve the function of motion control of rotate thruster; we carry out corresponding modular design on software system to ensure the underwater vehicle system based on rotate thruster to operate stably. Its main tasks are: (1) hardware system design of rotatable thruster. First of all, studying the framework of hardware system in details; then introducing the equipment characteristic and selection according to the need of the control system; in the end the functional of the sub-units are introduced respectively. (2) software system design of rotatable thruster. Firstly, we study the whole structure and composition of rotatable thruster in details; secondly, designing the communication unit and human-computer interface unit; thirdly, we carry out the RTOS migration and modular software design; (3) the modeling of the rotatable thruster and the analysis of control task. Firstly, defineing the coordinate system and then doing the coordinate transformation work; secondly, modeling the rotatable thruster; finally, conducted the analysis of underwater vehicle control tasks and presented the specific constraints to complete the task; (4) the land and pond experiments of rotatable thruster. The analysis of experimental data proves that the design of rotatable thruster is reasonable and correct.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9274
Appears in Collections:水下机器人研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
凌波.基于可旋转推进器的水下机器人运动控制研究.[硕士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2011
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