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题名: 基于前视声纳的水下机器人目标自主跟踪研究
其他题名: Research on Target Autonomous Tracking of Underwater Vehicle Based on Forward-Looking Sonar
作者: 杨辉
导师: 李硕
分类号: TP242
关键词: 水下机器人 ; 目标跟踪 ; 前视声纳 ; 声纳图像处理
索取号: TP242/Y27/2012
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2012-05-28
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 水下机器人技术研究室
中文摘要: 随着水下机器人技术的日趋成熟,提高水下机器人的自主能力也备受重视。前视声纳作为水下机器人上搭载的重要传感器,可以为水下机器人提供有效的环境信息。目前,前视声纳在水下机器人上的应用中,主要通过人工识别前视声纳的信息,不能直接被水下机器人自主决策所使用。为此,本文研究了基于前视声纳信息的水下机器人目标自主跟踪问题。    本文从单波束前视声纳的原始数据出发,实时获取声纳视域内的目标距离和方位信息,然后控制水下机器人自主跟踪目标。为此,本文依次展开了以下三方面的研究:获取声纳原始数据,并生成声纳图像;处理声纳图像,从中提取目标特征信息;根据目标特征信息,实现水下机器人自主跟踪目标。    首先,由于本文所使用的前视声纳自带的水面软件只显示声纳图像,不提供数据接口,所以,本文根据声纳的通信协议和内部的工作时序,重新设计可用于控制声纳工作的水面软件,以直接获取声纳的原始数据。 并且对声纳原始数据进行进一步处理,包括了生成声纳图像并实时显示和对声纳图像的信息提取。本文详细介绍了该声纳应用软件中各个功能模块的具体实现。     其次,针对前视声纳图像的特点,本文研究了前视声纳图像处理方法。从声纳图像中提取目标特征信息可大致分为三个步骤:声纳图像预处理,图像分割和目标特征信息提取。研究了包括去除噪声和滤波,灰度变换,图像二值化,形态学变换和连通域分割及标记的相关原理和实现算法,并在声纳应用软件中实现了该处理过程,实时地从声纳图像中提取了目标的特征信息。    最后,在实时获取的目标特征信息的基础上研究了实现水下机器人目标自主跟踪的方法。提出了一种以视线法为基础,基于目标航向的水下机器人目标自主跟踪策略,并在水池通过试验验证了其有效性。在目标自主跟踪问题上,研究了数据关联的方法,解决了在不同声纳图像中对同一目标识别的问题;同时,研究提高目标跟踪的可靠性,讨论了被跟踪目标丢失的原因和提出了一种水下机器人处理目标丢失的策略,并在水池进行了试验,验证了其有效性。    本文完整地实现了水下机器人从前视声纳数据出发到目标自主跟踪的全部过程,提高了水下机器人自主能力,也为前视声纳在水下机器人的进一步应用奠定了基础。
英文摘要: Along with the development of UUV (Unmanned underwater Vehicle) technology, much attention has been paid on the research of improving the autonomous operational capability of UUV. The FLS (Forward-Looking Sonar), which could be equipped on UUV, is a very effective sensor to obtain environmental information in underwater environment. At present, the popular method to make use of the information of FLS is to identify the sonar image artificially, so that it is hard to realize   target autonomous tracking or autonomous obstacle avoidance for UUV according to the information of FLS. Therefore, the target autonomous tracking issue of UUV based on single-beam forward looking sonar is proposed in this paper.     The range and bearing information of targets inside the FLS view scope need to be extracted from the raw data generated by a single-beam FLS in real time, then the target information can be used to guide the UUV to track the target through a certain algorithm. To this end, the following three aspects are researched: obtaining the raw sonar data and generating sonar image, processing sonar image and extracting target feature information, and tracking a target autonomously according to the feature information.    Firstly, the software that comes with the FLS being used in our research can only display the sonar image and does not provide a data interface. In order to obtain the sonar raw data, the sonar control software based on sonar communication protocol and the working sequence of the FLS is redesigned. After that, a further processing had been researched, including generating sonar image and displaying sonar image in real-time. In this section, a concrete realization of all functional modules about this self-custom sonar software is provided.     Secondly, according to characteristics of the FLS image, the processing method of FLS image is researched in this paper. The process of extracting the target feature information from the sonar image can be broadly divided into three steps: the sonar image preprocessing, image segmentation and target feature information extraction. The detailed steps include de-noising, filtering, gray-scale transformation, image binary, morphological transformation, connectivity of the domain partition and marking the relevant areas. Combined with related principles and algorithms, the whole process has been realized by a concrete algorithm. At last, the real-time target feature information has been extracted from the FLS image.     Finally, the method of target autonomous tracking based on the real-time target feature information, which mainly includes azimuth and range information, is researched in this paper. An underwater target autonomous tracking strategy which based on line of sight trajectory following method is put forward. Concretely, the data associated method, which solves the problem of identification of the same target in different sonar image, and the problem of the lost of tracking target during the tracking processing are researched. At last, the results of experiments about the target tracking in the pool are given and the effectiveness of our method is verified.     The entire process of target tracking of UUV based on FLS in this paper is completely realized. The beginning point is the raw data of FLS and the ending point is the target autonomous tracking of UUV. That is a significant improvement on the autonomous operation capability of UUV, it is a foundation work for the further research concerned with FLS on UUV.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9275
Appears in Collections:水下机器人研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
杨辉.基于前视声纳的水下机器人目标自主跟踪研究.[硕士 学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2012
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