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题名: 无人水面艇轻型光电稳定平台的研究与设计
其他题名: Research and Design of Light Electro-optical Stabilized Platform
作者: 尹远
导师: 郑荣
分类号: TP212
关键词: 无人艇 ; 光电稳定平台 ; 多目标优化
索取号: TP212/Y56/2010
学位专业: 计算机应用技术
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2010-06-03
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 水下机器人技术研究室
中文摘要: 无人艇在海洋环境侦察、扫雷、港口保护、海洋科考等领域具有广阔的应用前景,越来越受到大家的关注。无人艇上通常搭载有摄像机、热像仪等光电传感器,由于受到无人艇在海洋中的摇荡运动和艇载设备引起的动载荷的影响,容易造成视场目标丢失和成像模糊。极大地影响了光电传感器的效能,考虑采用光电稳定平台来克服动载荷对光电传感器的影响。光电稳定平台基于陀螺稳定原理,能够克服动载荷引起的视轴晃动。针对某无人水面艇桅杆较高、负载对航行体姿态影响较大的特点,设计了一两轴两框架轻型光电稳定平台。本文首先利用能量谱的方法对无人艇在随机波浪下的运动特性进行了分析,获得了无人艇摇荡运动仿真曲线。采用虚拟仿真技术建立简化的两轴两框架稳定平台模型,对稳定平台由无人艇摇荡运动引起的框架运动进行了分析,获得了需要补偿的稳定平台框架角运动补偿范围。对光电传感器的作用距离和平台的稳定精度也进行了分析。确定了光电稳定平台的总体设计指标,对相关传感器进行了选型。 然后,根据光电稳定平台的总体设计指标对轻型光电稳定平台进行了详细结构设计。主要包括方位框的驱动机构和俯仰框架的驱动机构。考虑了其驱动、测速、制动、防电线缠绕等问题。由于总体设计指标中,体积和重量都很小,需要考虑在较小的空间布置较多的部件,因此在设计时如何减小结构占用空间是一个主要的考虑因素。对光电稳定平台的驱动部件和支撑部件的载荷进行了分析,根据其载荷对力矩电机进行了选型,对轴承和驱动轴进行了设计校核,并对法兰、基座等形状复杂结构利用有限元分析进行了强度和刚度校核。 最后,分析了稳定平台框架谐振频率对系统伺服性能的影响,对稳定平台中较为关键的方位框架,进行了动态特性分析。为进一步降低框架重量,以方位框架的谐振频率和重量为目标进行了多目标优化。本文设计的光电稳定平台体积小、重量轻,并且满足无人水面艇的光电传感器探测距离需求。文中设计光电稳定平台的结构对于设计小型伺服驱动结构有一定的借鉴意义。
英文摘要: Unmanned surface vehicles show a sound prospect in the marine environment reconnaissance, mine hunting, port protection, marine scientific exploration and other fields, more and more people pay attention to its research. Unmanned surface vehicles usually carry a camera, thermal imager and other electro-optical sensors, due to the swaying motions of unmanned surface vehicles and the equipment’ dynamic load, it’s easy to loss goals from visual field and cause fuzzy image. This will greatly affect the performance of electro-optical sensors. An electro-optical stabilized platform is used to overcome the dynamic load. Electro-optical stabilized platform is based on principles of gyro stability, can overcome the visual axis shaking caused by the dynamic load. Since a certain type of Unmanned Surface Vehicle has a high mast、not far detecting distance and load have great impact on the posture of the vehicle, a two-axis light weight electro-optical stabilized platform is designed.      Firstly, wave spectrum method is applied to simulate disturbance on the ship by random wave, unmanned surface vehicle’s swaying motion simulation curve is obtained. A simplified two-axis stabilized platform modal is established in the virtual simulation software, to analysis framework’s angular motion of the stabilized platform caused by dynamic load, and then get the necessary angular range of motion compensation of the platform framework. The detection range of the electro-optical sensor and platform stability accuracy are also analyzed. The overall design of the stabilized platform is established. Then, according to the overall design of electro-optical stabilized platform, the detail structural design of the light electro-optical stabilized platform is finished. Mainly include orientation framework structural and the pitch framework structural. The driving, braking, preventing electric wire winding are taken into considered. According to the overall design specifications, volume and weight are very small; need take more consideration to the spatial arrangement of the parts, so how to reduce the structural design space is a major consideration. The drive load and load on support components is analyzed. Based on its load, select the torque motor, and check the design of the drive shaft and bearing, since the shape of flanges and the base is complex, the finite element analysis method is used to check its strength.  Finally, the stabilized platform framework’s resonant frequency impact on the servo system is analyzed. The orientation framework is more critical among the part of the stabilized platform, analyze its dynamic characteristic. To further reduce the orientation framework’s weight, the multi-objective optimization method is used to optimize the orientation framework.     The electro-optical stabilized platform has small volume and light weight while has enough payload ability and detecting ability. The structural design method of the light elelctro-optimal stabilized platform has some reference to the design of small servo drive system.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9288
Appears in Collections:水下机器人研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
尹远.无人水面艇轻型光电稳定平台的研究与设计.[硕士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2010
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