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面向目标追踪的无线传感器网络覆盖问题研究
Alternative TitleThe Coverage Problem in the Target Tracking Wireless Sensor Network
臧传治1,2
Department工业控制系统研究室
Thesis Advisor于海斌
ClassificationTp212
Keyword无线传感器网络 感知覆盖 网络生存时间 目标追踪 移动智能体
Call NumberTP212/Z14/2007
Pages120页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2007-02-09
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract

微传感器技术、微电子技术、无线通信技术以及计算技术的进步,推动了集数据采集、处理、无线传输等功能于一体的无线传感器网络的发展。无线传感器网络将逻辑信息世界和客观物理世界融合在一起,改变人类与物理世界的交互方式,扩展人类认识物理世界的能力。无线传感器网络通过传感器监测物理世界,覆盖问题是其理论研究和实际应用的关键问题之一。覆盖问题决定了无线传感器网络监测物理世界的质量,影响无线传感器网络部署、网络拓扑结构、路由质量和网络生存时间等关键研究内容。本文针对追踪移动目标过程中的探测、定位和追踪等环节,首先分别研究了探测覆盖和位置覆盖问题,然后分析不同覆盖策略下的网络生存时间,最后研究追踪移动目标过程中的任务分配问题。论文的研究内容包括以下几个方面。综述了覆盖问题的研究内容、覆盖控制算法的分类和评价标准,以及覆盖问题的研究现状。考虑目标的速度、方向、传感器的检测时间,建立传感器的感知模型。从监测对象入手,分析目标的方向和速度对感知结果的影响,获取了最大/最小暴露方向和临界速度。基于对方向和速度的分析,分析感知半径变化范围的上下界,获取了临界半径。最后,分析满足一定覆盖要求的传感器临界数量和临界密度。针对对目标进行定位的传感器网络,分析了概率覆盖问题。首先,根据传感器节点三种不同的距离估算方法,建立三种不同的概率感知模型。从概率上分析了感知模型的特点,并比较了它们的优缺点。最后建立了传感器网络对单个目标位置及整个监测区域的覆盖模型。分析表明,不同的概率感知模型适应不同的要求。根据单个传感器和传感器网络之间的关系,以及在延迟约束下不同传感器所扮演的角色不同,基于能量,建立了用于目标追踪的传感器网络的生存时间模型。考虑目标的不同行为和不同的覆盖策略,给出计算网络生存时间上界的方法。分析表明,网络生存时间模型非常有价值,它揭示了网络生存时间对最大传输跳数、网络密度、无线传输范围、感知范围、目标行为及覆盖策略等因素的依赖关系。针对移动目标,研究了任务分配问题。给出多传感器协作探测的方式,以及选择信号处理节点的方式和原则;采用基于概率的选举策略,降低了通信开销,提高了信道利用率;就感知覆盖问题而言,让不必要的传感器节点进入休眠状态,节约了能量,提高了网络生存时间;研究了数据融合问题,给出了选择融合数据的基本准则。

Other Abstract

The rapid progress of embedded micro-sensing technology, micro-electronic technology, wireless communication and computing technology has made the wireless sensor network (WSN) which integrates the data collection, data processing and wireless communication functions get a great development. The WSN connects the logical information world with the object physical world, changes the way that the human recognize the physical world, and improves the human’s recognition ability. The WSN feels the physical world with its sensors. The coverage problem is a key problem and is very important to the theoretical study and applications of WSN. The coverage problem describes how a sensor network senses a monitored field, and it can influence the WSN’s deployment strategy, topology structure, quality of routing and network lifetime. In the target tracking WSN, focusing on target detection, localization and tracking, the dissertation first studies the detection coverage problem and localization coverage problem respectively, and then analyzes the network lifetimes under different coverage strategies and studies the task allocation strategy. The major contribution of this dissertation is stated as following. The research contents and the categories of the coverage problem are surveyed. The network evaluation metrics are listed and related works are stated. Focusing on the target speed, direction and moving time, the sensing model is studied. By studying how the target direction and speed influence the coverage, the maximum exposure direction and minimum exposure direction and the critical speeds are developed. Based the direction and speed analysis, the upper and lower bound of the domains on which the sensing radius changes are developed and the corresponding critical radii are also developed. Finally, the sensor number and density which can get some extent coverage quality are analyzed and the critical numbers and densities are developed. The probabilistic coverage problem in WSN which is particularly targeted at the location estimation application is studied. For single sensor, three different distance estimation algorithms are established. Then the corresponding probabilistic sensing models are developed and the comparison of the probabilistic performance among them is studied. For sensor network, we establish two coverage models which describe how the whole network covers particular location and the whole monitored field respectively. The analysis shows that different sensing models can satisfy different requirements. A novel model is defined which formally describes the network lifetime of target tracking sensor network based on energy by considering the relationship between individual sensors and the whole sensor network and the importance of different sensors based on their roles in delay constrained routing. Focusing on the different target behavior and different coverage strategies, a network lifetime calculation algorithm is developed explicitly. The analysis shows that the model is valuable. It exposes that the network lifetime depends on factors like hop bound, network density, radio transmission range, sensing range, target behavior and the coverage strategies. The task-allocation strategy is studied in the target tracking WSN. The coordination structure among the sensors is studied and the rules of how to choose the information processing sensor are developed. A probabilistic based competition strategy is developed to reduce the communication overhead and to save the bandwidth. For the coverage problem, the sensor energy is saving by letting the redundant sensors go to sleep, and thus improve the network lifetime. Finally, a data fusion method is studied and the rule of how to select the fusion data is developed.

Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/92
Collection工业信息学研究室_工业控制系统研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
臧传治. 面向目标追踪的无线传感器网络覆盖问题研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2007.
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