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题名: 激光拼焊焊缝成形方法与技术研究
其他题名: Research on Weld Formation Method and Technology of Tailored Laser Welding
作者: 陈东
导师: 赵明扬
分类号: TG665
关键词: 激光拼焊 ; 焊缝成形 ; 间隙 ; 碾压技术 ; 动态工艺补偿方法
索取号: TG665/C44/2011
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011-11-28
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 装备制造技术研究室
中文摘要: 激光拼焊是指采用激光能源,将若干不同材质、不同厚度、不同涂层的钢板进行拼合和焊接的工艺方法,它满足了零部件对材料性能的不同要求,用最优结构和最佳性能实现了装备轻量化。激光拼焊板(TWB)已广泛应用于汽车制造业,采用激光拼焊板工艺不仅能够减轻汽车重量、降低能源消耗和整车制造成本,而且可以提高车身强度、防腐能力及安全性能。随着汽车制造业的迅猛发展,国内对激光拼焊板的需求逐年递增,最近两年更是以80%的速度增长,这些为激光拼焊技术的研究与开发提供了广阔的空间。由于激光光斑直径很小,激光拼焊对料片的定位夹紧精度和激光束的运动精度提出了很高的要求,为保证焊接质量,必须对焊缝成形过程进行严格、精确的控制,因此研究焊缝成形方法与技术具有重要意义。 本文以中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所(SIA)研制的国内首条全自动激光拼焊生产线为基础,以提高激光拼焊焊缝质量为目标,以焊缝成形方法与技术为对象展开研究。将焊缝成形过程分为焊前成形、焊中成形和焊后成形三个阶段,主要从焊前成形和焊中成形两个影响焊缝质量的关键环节入手,提出解决问题的技术和方法,在焊前成形阶段提出了挤压成形方法、碾压技术和精刨技术,在焊中成形阶段建立了动态工艺补偿方法。 本文对沈阳自动化研究所研制的全自动激光拼焊生产线的焊缝成形过程进行了分析,分析了精剪误差、定位误差与间隙的关系,研究了挤压成形方法对定位误差的补偿机理和实现条件,分析了现有定位方法存在的问题并提出了厚板定位薄板的定位方法。上述研究成果为下一步的研究工作提供了实践基础。 对碾压机理、碾压机构和碾压工艺进行了研究。建立了碾压力计算的数学模型;分析了碾压轮直径、厚度和轮缘形貌等主要结构参数与碾压力、宽展的关系,在仿真试验的基础上,对碾压轮结构参数进行了优化,并基于优化结果设计了新型碾压机构;研究了碾压深度、碾压位置、碾压速度等工艺参数对碾压过程的影响;在长焊缝试验台上进行了碾压工艺试验,验证了仿真结果的正确性,证明了碾压技术对于减小焊前成形间隙、提高焊缝质量有显著作用。 提出了激光拼焊精刨技术。该技术改变了传统的料片接边处理方式,降低了对前道工序的精度要求,减少了材料消耗,降低了生产成本,同时易于实现在线操做。研发了适合薄板接边加工的高精度精刨设备,设计了适合微量切削的可调刃倾角精刨刀具,为提高加工效率和处理毛刺问题设计了组合刀具,同时对在线精刨的实现方式进行了研究。 研究了工艺参数对间隙的补偿原理,建立了间隙、工艺参数、板材厚度等因素间的数学关系模型,并详细讨论了模型中各参数的意义和确定方法。分析了间隙宽度和中心位置随焊缝位置的变化情况,指出了传统固定工艺参数焊接模式存在的问题,建立了动态工艺补偿方法,提高了间隙补偿的精确性,尤其对提高焊缝均匀性有重要作用。 焊缝成形方法与技术最终要应用在激光拼焊生产线上,因此本文进行了新型激光拼焊生产线的方案设计,定位单元采用了厚板定位薄板的定位方法,夹紧系统采用了磁气复合的夹紧方式,焊接单元集成了碾压技术。 本文通过对焊缝成形方法与技术的研究,提高了焊前成形质量,增强了对焊中成形的控制,对于提高焊缝质量起到了重要作用。
英文摘要: Tailored laser welding is a welding technique used to join multiple pieces of different material, thickness and coating steel plates through a laser heat source. Tailored laser welding technology satifies variant material performance requirements of parts, and meets equipment lightweighting demands with optimal structure and performance.Tailor Welded Blanks(TWB) is widely used in motor industry. TWB technology can not only reduce the weight, energy consumption and manufacture cost of cars, but also improve the mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and safety performance.With the development of motor industry, the increasingly demands of TWB appear every year, and the demands are increased by 80% in recent two years. This situation perfectly provides an opportunity for tailored laser welding technology research and development. Due to the teeny laser spot diameter, the tailored laser welding process requires very high demands for positioning and clamping precision of the sheets, as well as motion accuracy of the laser beam. In order to ensure the quality of the weld, it is necessary to control the weld formation process strictly and precisely. So, the research on weld formation method and technology is very important. This thesis base on the first domestic full-automatic tailored laser welding production line developed by Shenyang Institute of Automation(SIA), Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS), and aims to improve the quality of weld through the research on weld formation method and technology. Weld formation process is divided into three phases: the fore-weld formation process, the welding formation process and the post-weld formation process. The thesis first analyzes the fore-welding formation and welding formation process which are the key factors of influencing the welding quality, and gives the method and technology for solving the problem. The extrusion formation method, rolling technology and precision planning technology are given in the fore-welding formation process. The dynamic process compensation method is proposed in the welding formation process. The analysis of weld formation process is presented for the tailored laser welding production line by SIA. The relations between fine cutting error, positioning error and gaps are given, the compensation mechnisms and realization conditions of the extrusion formation method is researched,and a new positioning method which positions the thinner sheets depending on the thicker one is presented too. All analyses above provide the foundation for the next work. Then, the rolling principle, machnism and technology are analyzed. The rolling force mathmatical model is well developed. The relations between the structural parameters and the rolling force,width spread are given, and the the structural parameters are optimized based on simulation. Finally a new type rolling mechanism is designed. The process parameters influencing the rolling procedure, such as rolling depth, position and speed are discussed. The rolling process expriment is conducted in the long weld seam test bed, the result shows that the previous simulation is correct and also demonstrates that the rolling technology works perfectly for reducing the fore-welding gaps and improving the welding quality. The fine planning technology is proposed in this thesis. The given method differs from the traditional way of edge-machining procedure, and which reduces the precision requirement of the previous process, the material consumption, and the production cost. Meanwhile, the technology could implement online easily.The thesis presents a high precision fine planning equipment that fits for edge- machining process of thin sheets, provides edge inclination adjustable cutter which is suitable for micro cutting, and designs composite cutters for removing burrs and improving the processing efficiency. Furthermore, the online fine planning realization is discussed. In the thesis, the process parameters compensating principle for gaps is studied, the mathmatical model which gives the relation among gap, technology parameter and sheets thickness is given, and the determination of the parameters are discussed. Various statuses of gap width and center location following the welding seam are analyzed. The analysis demonstrates the defects of the traditional process compensation method. A novel dynamic process compensation method is developed, and the given method improves the precision of the gap compensation, especially for ensuring the uniformity of the weld. The value of weld formation method and technology lies in its application to the tailored laser welding production line, therefore, this thesis designs a novel scheme of tailored laser welding production line, which includes the sheets positioning method that uses the thicker sheet to position the thinner one, the clamping system that adapts the composite magnetic and pneumatic clamping technology, the welding unit integrates rolling technology.   Through the research on the weld formation method and technology, the quality of fore-weld formation is improved, the controlling capacity of welding formation strengtheded. The research plays important role for ensuring the quality of the weld.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9302
Appears in Collections:装备制造技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
陈东.激光拼焊焊缝成形方法与技术研究.[博士 学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2011
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