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题名: 集束型半导体装备建模与仿真技术研究
其他题名: Research on Modeling and Simulation Methods for Cluster Tools in Semiconductor Manufacturing
作者: 郑秀红
导师: 于海斌 ; 胡静涛
分类号: TN47
关键词: 半导体制造 ; 集束型 ; 随机Petri网 ; 建模 ; 仿真
索取号: TN47/Z59/2011
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011-11-21
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 工业信息学研究室
中文摘要: 半导体制造产业正在全球范围内高速发展,先进的半导体制造厂商已经开始大规模采用芯片关键尺寸为90nm的集成电路制造技术,300mm 晶圆已成为主流产品。随着集成电路关键尺寸的不断减小、晶圆尺寸的不断增大,集成电路的制造工艺变得越来越复杂,对集成电路制 造环境及设备自动化水平要求越来越高,集束型半导体装备成为集成电路生产线上的主流装备。     集束型半导体装备将多个相关晶圆加工模块集成在一起,以提高晶圆加工的质量和产量。由于集束型装备自身的结构特点及其晶圆加工 流程的复杂多变,使得集束型装备的性能分析和产能预测变得非常困难。建立集束型装备模型、描述并仿真集束型装备的加工过程是预 测装备产能和辅助装备设计的有效方式之一。集束型半导体装备建模与仿真技术研究具有重要的理论意义和实用价值。     针对集束型装备建模、仿真和性能分析需求,论文依托国家科技重大专项课题“集束型式控制平台与软件”(2009ZX02001-005)和沈阳 市科技计划项目“符合SEMI标准的IC装备自动化控制系统开发平台”(108155-2-00),重点开展了以下五个方面的研究与开发工作:     首先,针对并行集束型装备的模型进行研究。采用时序图方法描述并行集束型装备的晶圆加工过程,通过对N-腔体加工过程时序图的分 析,建立了N-腔体集束型装备的吞吐量理论模型,同时还给出了暂态和稳态时期装备加工过程瓶颈变化界限的理论模型。上述模型反映 了集束型装备配置参数对系统吞吐量的影响。     第二,考虑晶圆加工时间存在随机波动的特性,建立了N-腔体串行集束型装备的随机Petri网模型。基于N-腔体串行集束型装备的随机 Petri网模型和马尔可夫链分析方法,给出了装备吞吐量、腔体利用率、机械手利用率和晶圆滞留率等性能指标的理论模型。最后,以一 个3-腔体集束型装备为例,介绍了模型构造、模型简化和性能分析过程。     第三,针对串-并混合型集束型装备配置的特点,建立了三个串-并混合型集束型装备随机回报网模型。同时针对串-并混合型晶圆流易出 现死锁的问题,介绍了模型的死锁控制策略。论文还建立了批加工过程的随机回报网模型。最后,以晶圆流(2,1,1)为例,建立模型 ,并在软件包SPNP中实现,仿真分析了装备配置对系统吞吐量,资源利用率,晶圆滞留率等性能指标的影响。     第四,考虑在晶圆加工过程存在的一些不确定因素,例如腔体故障,分别建立了引入故障、预防性维修的加工模块子模型,并给出了腔 体和装备平均故障率的理论模型。考虑到腔体周期性清洁维护的要求,建立了引入周期性清洁维护因素的加工模块模型。最后,以一个 3-腔体集束型装备为例,分析了腔体故障和清洁周期对装备性能的影响。     第五,基于上述集束型半导体装备模型,采用工具 Visual C++和AutoMod,建立了集束型半导体装备的仿真平台。该平台包含四部分, 分别是用户界面、装备模型、仿真器和性能分析。用户界面负责接收用户输入的装备配置参数;装备模型和仿真器是仿真平台的核心, 基于模型实现了并行、串行和串-并混合型集束型装备仿真器,同时还引入了腔体故障和周期性维护因素;性能分析部分是平台的输出, 用户根据输出信息分析装备性能、验证调度有效性和辅助系统设计。     综上所述,论文建立了并行、串行、串-并混合型集束型装备的模型,给出了基于模型的性能分析方法,分析了装备配置对装备吞吐量的 影响。最后设计开发了集束型半导体装备仿真平台,为装备的性能分析和辅助设计提供了一个有效手段。
英文摘要: Semiconductor manufacturing industry is growing rapidly worldwide. Advanced semiconductor manufacturers have begun a large-scale use of the integrated circuit manufacturing technology that the chip critical dimensions is 90nm, 300mm wafers have become a mainstream product. With the critical dimensions of integrated circuits decrease and wafer size increase continually, the integrated circuit manufacturing processes become more complex, and high demands for  integrated circuit manufacturing environment and equipment automation level, cluster tools have become the mainstream equipment at the integrated circuit production line.     Cluster tools integrate a number of related wafer processing modules to improve the system throughput and the wafer quality. The complexity and uncertainty of cluster tools make the performance analysis and prediction of the cluster tools becoming a very complex task. Establishing cluster tools model to describe the process procedure is an effective way to predict the performance of production equipment and assisting equipment design. The research on cluster tools modeling and simulation technology has important theoretical significance and practical value.     For cluster tools modeling, simulation and the performance analysis needs, with the support of the major national science and technology special issue "the cluster control platforms and software" (2009ZX02001-005) and the Shenyang Science and Technology Program "the development platform  for IC equipment automation and control system meeting SEMI standard "(108155-2-00), the paper focused the research and development work on the following five aspects: First, the theoretic models of parallel cluster tools are established for performance analysis.  The timing diagram method is applied to describe the process procedure of the parallel cluster tools. Through the analysis of timing diagram of every process phase, the throughput models of the N-chamber parallel cluster tools are established. Moreover, the constraint boundary condition of the transition state and the steady state is inferred respectively. Models reflect the impact of the cluster tools’ configuration parameters on system throughput     Second, the stochastic Petri net models of the serial cluster tools are established for considering the stochastic characteristic of active duration, Based on the stochastic Petri net models of the N- chamber serial cluster tools and Markov chain method, some performance models are deduced, such as the throughput model, the utilization of process chamber model, the utilization of the robot model and the wafer residency rate in process chamber model. Finally, the construction procedure of the model, the model simplification and performance analysis of the 3-chamber cluster tools are described as an instance.     Third, three stochastic reward net models are established based on the serial-parallel cluster tools’ configurations. Because the deadlock often happens in serial-parallel wafer flow mode, the deadlock control strategy of the model is introduced. Moreover, the stochastic reward net model of lot process procedure is established. Finally, the stochastic reward net model of a wafer flow mode (2, 1, 1) is constructed and realized in the SPNP as an instance. The throughput, the wafer residency rate and other performance parameters are computed.     Fourth, there are still some uncertain factors in the wafer process procedure, such as the chamber failure.The sub-models of the processing chamber with the failure, the preventive maintenance, are established respectively, the average failure rate theoretical models of the equipment and the chamber are given further. According to the periodic cleaning maintenance operations of process chamber, the periodic cleaning maintenance model is established. Finally, a 3-chamber cluster tools is take as example to analyze the impact of the chamber cleaning cycle and failure on the equipment throughput.     Finally, Based on the above models of cluster tools, the cluster tools simulation platform is developed with Visual C + + and AutoMod. This platform consists of the user interface, the equipment models, the simulator and the performance analysis. The user interface is responsible for accepting equipment configuration parameters that users input. The equipment models and the simulator are the core of the simulation platform. They realize the parallel, serial and the serial-parallel equipment models, including the chamber failure and periodic maintenance. The performance analysis is the platform output, assisting performance analysis and verifying the effectiveness of scheduling.     In summary, the models of the parallel, serial, serial- parallel cluster tools are established. The model-based performance analysis method is given. The impact of the equipment configuration of the equipment on the system throughput is analyzed with simulation method. Cluster tool simulation platform provides a tool for performance analysis and system aided design.  
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9358
Appears in Collections:工业信息学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
郑秀红.集束型半导体装备建模与仿真技术研究.[博士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2011
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