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题名:
现场总线设备管理技术研究
其他题名: Research on Fieldbus Device Management
作者: 单玉刚
导师: 王宏
分类号: TP273
关键词: 设备管理 ; 设备集成 ; EDD ; 框架 ; 故障诊断
索取号: TP273/S27/2011
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011-11-25
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
授予地点: 沈阳
作者部门: 工业信息学研究室
摘要: 设备管理是保证企业运营成功的关键因素。对设备科学的管理,可以有效提高设备利用率,降低维护成本。提升企业的设备管理水平不仅有助于企业实现其经营目标,也将推动生产、环境与社会的和谐发展。随着现场总线技术的快速发展,大量的不同厂商、不同总线的现场设备应用到控制系统中,人们对现场测量和控制设备的要求越来越高,同时也带来了设备管理上的困难。 设备集成是现场设备管理得以实施的关键技术。目前设备管理存在问题:多种设备集成技术如何融合;设备特征的通用理解方法;由于技术复杂FDT设备管理系统如何构建;不同总线设备管理的实施方案;以及及时发现、快速诊断传感器故障的方法。这些都是该领域研究人员面临重要的亟待解决的问题。 本文的基本思路是:以现场总线在线仪表设备为研究和应用背景,对设备管理的支撑技术——设备集成和设备管理方法的研究为主线,以研发设备管理系统框架和实现多现场总线集成的设备管理为目的,重点从方法的层面上对设备管理理论进行了研究和探讨。旨在进一步完善设备管理相关理论,为提高设备的管理效能奠定方法基础。 针对设备管理方法及设备集成问题特点,在广泛阅读国内外相关文献并深入探索的基础上,对设备集成以及设备管理理论方法进行了较深入的研究和探讨,重点解决了以下问题: 1)建立了通用的设备集成模型,为设备管理软件开发提供了一种通用理解方法。 设备的信息和功能错综复杂地分布在贯穿设备生命周期的软件工具中。大量的信息需要一个灵活的、可适应的和可扩展的结构组织。在研究设备模型的基础上,通过分析现场设备全生命周期管理的功能和结构以及设备集成的目的,使用面向对象技术,建立了一种结构化组织,集用户接口、资源、数据、参数、事件和行为为一体的设备集成模型,以提供对设备特征的理解,满足工具软件实现对现场设备集成和现场设备互操作的需要。 2)提出了两种设备集成技术——EDD(Electronic device description)与FDT/DTM(Field device tool/device type manager)融合方法,提高了现场设备的集成能力。 针对现场总线的互操作和综合集成的需要,在分析EDD和FDT特点的基础上提出一种把两种技术的融合模型,通过把EDD解释器嵌入到设备DTM中,在DTM UI中使用界面生成器,当解释器解析EDD文件,根据设备描述内容产生中间数据结构,根据视图模板自动生成 操作界面,实现对EDD的解析,使FDT框架在支持DTM的同时也支持EDD,并在设备DTM中使用通信管理模块管理与通信DTM的连接,实现灵活通信。给出了模型各部分的功能。详细说明了解释器和图形界面的实现过程。该DTM可以方便地集成到现有FDT框架中,实现灵活和广泛的设备集成。 3)提出了FDT设备管理系统框架的设计方法,降低了软件复杂度,提高了开发效率。 提出了采用基于构件的FDT设备管理系统的框架设计方法,在FDT设备管理框架中充分利用软件构件和应用框架来提高系统质量和效率。采用自动和手动相结合的构件组装策略实现了FDT设备管理系统的框架,框架中提供扩展点,可方便地扩展系统功能, 采用分层和分离的构件设计方法划分构件,构建了系统的构件模型。为FDT设备管理系统提供了一种可行方案。 4)提出了基于FDT多总线集成的设备管理方法,提高了设备管理能力。 针对多总线集成的设备管理,将FDT技术应用到控制系统中,以满足设备综合管理的需要,构建了系统软件框架模型和系统集成模型。采用设备集成模型的方法实现设备DTM,详细说明了通信DTM和网关DTM的结构模型,分析了DTM与现场设备的交互过程。 5)提出了仪表设备特征提取方法和故障诊断方法,提高了故障诊断精度,保障了设备安全运行。 为提高支持向量机分类精度,提出一种一对一与基于紧密度判决相结合的多分类方法,首先使用一对一算法分类,然后采用基于紧密度决策解决不可分区,依据样本到类中心之间的距离和基于kNN(k nearest neighbor)的样本分布情况结合的方式构建判别函数来确定类别归属。为减少DAGSVMs的累积误差,使用当前可分性最大的两类构造上层SVM,形成优化的DAGSVMs。利用小波包三层分解传感器信号提取各个频带的能量以及信号的模极大值构成初始特征,使用核Fisher方法将原始特征空间映射到高维特征空间,增强了样本可分性。以水循环控制系统的压力传感器为故障诊断对象,说明了应用。
英文摘要: Device management is one critical factor to ensure that of business operations. Scientific device management can improve device utilization, reduce maintenance costs. Enhancing device management will not only help companies achieve their business objectives, but also promote the harmony development of production, environment and social. With the rapid development of fieldbus technology, a large number different fieldbus devices from different vendors applied to the field bus control system. People have become increasingly demanding for field devices usd for measure and control, which bring more difficulties for device management. Device integration is the key technology of implementation of field device management. The current main device management problems: how to integrate a variety of device integration technologies; common understanding way for the device characteristics; due to technical complexity how to build a FDT device management system; implementation plan of different fieldbus device management; and timely detection and rapid diagnosis of sensor faults. These are important problems to be solved for researchers. This research and its application background of this dissertation are the field instrumentation. This study focuses on device management methods and device integration, and takes the field device management software as the presentation tool.The purpose of this study is to further improve the device management theory, and lay a good foundation for improving management efficacy. According to the characters of quality issues for device management methods and device integration, the authors looked up much relative literature and further carry out this study on the device management theory. This paper focuses on resolving the following key issues: 1) Established a device integration model to provides a common understanding approach for development of the device management software Each field device contains a great deal of automation control information, which is used for different stages of software tools throughout a device's life cycle from the configuration towards operation, maintenance, and asset management. By analyzing functions and structure of software tools throughout a device's life cycle and using object-oriented technology for modeling, this paper establishes a field device integration model with structured organization of user interfaces, data, parameters, services, and events in order to provide understanding of features of field device integration and meet needs of achieving field device integration and device interoperability for software tools. The model can be converted into a corresponding field device description. 2) Presented an integration model of the EDD and FDT/DTM to improve the integration of field devices This paper proposes an integration model based on EDD and FDT. through embedding the EDDL(Electronic Device Description Language) interpreter into the device DTM and adding the user interface generator in the DTM UI(User Interface), when the interpreter parse EDD file, in terms of contents of the device description the intermediate data structure is generated, and by interacting with the viewbuilder user interfaces are automatically generated to implement operation for the device. As a consequence, the FDT framework support both DTM(Device Type Manager) and EDD. Inner logic of the model is clarified. The implementation of interpreter and user interface is specified in detail. The DTM based on EDD can be easily integrated into existing FDT framework, attaining a purpose of flexible and wide device integration. 3) Presented a design method of the FDT device management framework to reduce software complexity and improve development efficiency. This paper presents a framework of the FDT device management system and a component model by adopting the design methods of the framework based on component for software development. Adopting automatic and manual methods of components assembly to achieve the FDT device management framework.the framework provides extension points, which can easily extend the system functionality. using hierarchical design method and separation of components to build a system component model.Owing to a good scalability and easy reusability, a framework based on component of the FDT device Management System has the important effect to improving software development efficacy and reducing software development cost. 4) Presented a method of the multifieldbus device management based on FDT to improve the capabilities of device management. FDT technology is applied to the NCS4000 system for satisfying the needs of the device management, and the system software framework model and system integration model based on FDT is presented.the device DTM implementation method based on device integration model is explained in detail. The implementation method of the communication DTM and gateway DTM are introduced, and the interaction process of the DTM and field device is analyzed. 5) Proposed approaches of the feature extraction and instrumentation diagnosis to improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis and ensure the safe operation of devices. To improve the accuracy of support vector machine multi-classification, a multi-classification algorithm of integration of one-against-one and affinity decision is presented, firstly, using the one-against-one multi-class classification algorithm to classify samples, and then using the affinity decision to solve samples in the unclassifiable region and to determine categories of samples, which using the approach of distance between the sample and centers of classes and sample distribution based on kNN (k nearest neighbor) to create decision function. To reduce the accumulated error of DAGSVMs, according to the largest separability of two classes the upper SVM is selected under current structure, and optimal DAGSVMs are formed. Taking the sensor signal energies and modulus maxima of wavelet packet decomposition in three bands as initial features, valid features are extracted according to kernel fisher transform of initial feature vector, enhancing the signal characteristics. The approach is applied to the pressure sensor fault diagnosis in the water cycle control system of NCS4000, numerical experiment shows that the algorithm is effective.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9370
Appears in Collections:工业信息学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
单玉刚. 现场总线设备管理技术研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所. 2011.
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