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题名: 协同采购环境下的供应链建模与契约协调
其他题名: Research on Supply Chain Modeling and Contracts Design in Collaborative Purchasing Environment
作者: 朱珠
导师: 朱云龙
分类号: F274
关键词: 供应链协调 ; 供应商选择 ; 协同采购 ; 契约机制 ; 柔性
索取号: F274/Z84/2010
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010-11-25
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 工业信息学研究室
中文摘要: 随着当前企业经营模式从“纵向一体化”向“横向一体化”的转变,企业间的竞争也陡然转变为供应链之间的竞争和企业核心竞争力的比拼。外部环境日趋复杂,采购成为提升供应链核心竞争力和绩效的关键环节。从供应链内部环境审视,供应链各成员通常分属于不同的经济实体,其个体利益和行为经常与供应链系统的目标不一致,从而降低了供应链系统性能并使其收益受损。同时,随着社会的发展,个性化的市场需求和多样化的信息技术,催生了更为复杂的供应链组织结构形态,因此,构建科学的供应商选择模型、设计和实现供应链的契约协调机制,对于优化供应链结构、提高供应链绩效、增加供应链成员收益具有重要的现实意义。 基于上述背景,论文首先对供应链协调管理、供应链契约协调机制和供应商选择与建模的研究现状进行了综述,接着构建了协同采购环境下供应链建模与契约协调机制设计的研究框架,然后基于从源头优化供应链结构和从整体优化供应链绩效两个视角,分别以供应商选择和供应链契约机制设计为研究对象进行建模分析。据此,论文主要开展了下述4个方面的研究工作: (1) 建立了协同采购环境下基于个性优势特征的供应商选择模型和学习机制。明确协同采购环境下进行供应商选择的基本要求;在此基础上,遵循目的性、系统性、适度性、定性与定量相结合、可操作性5个原则建立了协同采购环境下供应商选择的指标体系;按照目标规划的思想,依据q-范数距离,建立了供应商个性优势特征的识别模型并给出了求解方法。基于个性优势特征的识别结果进行了三方面的工作,一是建立了供应商的标杆选择模型与学习机制设计,二是提出了供应商典型模式的提炼方法,三是提出了供应商的最终选择决策模型,并对模型进行了证明。最后, 通过一个具体的应用算例,验证了供应商选择模型的合理性与有效性。 (2) 建立了多对一供应链、市场需求随机、竞争产品同质的采购优化模型。在多个供应商和一个制造商的供应链情境下,建立了基于期权契约的Stackelberg博弈模型,分析了集中控制和分散控制下制造商的最优采购决策,证明在合理的期权契约协调机制下,供应商存在最优纳什均衡解,而且一旦期权契约参数设定,制造商不能随意设置最优初始采购量。最后通过数值仿真实验验证了契约参数之间的关系,以及系统实现协调时的最佳契约参数设置。 (3) 设计了外包商作为供应链上游的三级供应链的契约协调机制。针对制造商的产能受约束,零售商的需求信息可以更新的情境,分析供应链绩效受影响的因素。探讨制造商采用外包策略来弥补产能不足,并设计一个二次采购契约,通过调整契约参数和订货时点来激励零售商进行提前订货,从而缓解需求不确定和产能不足之间的冲突,实现包括外包商(供应商)、制造商和零售商的三级供应链系统的绩效改进。最后,通过一个数值算例更加直观的考察本文供应链契约机制的性质和绩效,证明了该契约机制的有效性。 (4) 构建了“供应商-制造商-销售商”三级供应链的联合契约协调机制。在需求不确定且产品价格外生的情境下,分析三级供应链中的上下游两个交易过程,针对交易的特性,分别构建了供应商和制造商之间的回购契约优化模型,制造商和销售商之间的期权契约优化模型,讨论了实现三级供应链协调的契约参数设置条件。最后,通过数值仿真实验验证了这种联合契约机制的合理性,通过设置恰当的契约参数,可以实现供应链系统绩效的提高和供应链成员收益的帕累托改进,从而达到协调三级供应链系统的目的。
英文摘要: In current dynamic changing environment, the business pattern of the enterprise has been transformed from “vertical integration” to “horizontal integration”. In the meantime, competition between enterprises has already turned into that between supply chains. High-efficient purchasing as an important process of supply chain management, often enhances the core competence of the supply chain, as well as the performance. Supply chain members usually belong to several relatively independent entities, which make them primarily concerned with optimizing their own objectives that are not always aligned with the performance needed by the supply chain system, and also result in the poor performance of the supply chain. The diversity information technology and the individuate customer’s demand lead the market demands highly uncertain and the supply chain’s organization structure more complex. Thus, how to design the supplier selection model and the coordination mechanism, which can optimize the supply chain structure, enhance the performance of the supply chain, increase the members’ profits and coordinate the whole chain ultimately, become significant in the practice. As is stated above, this dissertation studies deeply into newest academic achievement and application of supply chain coordination management, supply contracts mechanism and supplier selection. Then, a research framework of supply chain modeling and supply contracts design is constructed. In combination with the requirement that the structure of the supply chain is optimized from the upstream and the design principle, under which the supply chain’s performance can be improved, modeling of the supplier selection and the contracts coordination mechanism design are discussed. On this basis, the main results and conclusions of this thesis are listed as follows: (1) Supplier selection model based on individual advantage characteristics and the learning mechanism of supplier are established under collaborative purchasing environment. Firstly, based on the basic five principles and the new requirement under collaborative purchasing environment, the index system of supplier selection is built. Then, Weight coefficient is determined from the angle which is the most propitious to evaluated object, according to the idea of goal programming and q-norm distance. On the basis, an evaluation model based on individual advantage characteristic was constructed, which leads to a learning mechanism, a supplier typical mode clustering method and a final decision model of supplier selection. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the validation of the reasonable model. (2) Purchasing optimization model is established under the supply chain structure that includes multi-suppliers providing homogeneous products and one manufacturer facing stochastic demand. A Stackelberg game model based on option contract is constructed in which manufacturer is leader and the suppliers are the followers. Optimal decisions under central and decentralized control are analyzed respectively. It shows that manufacturer can design appropriate parameters to encourage the suppliers’ efforts while the performance of the supply chain making Pareto improvement. Once the parameters of the contract are set, the manufacturer can not change the initial orders any more. Finally, the validity of the flexible coordination mechanism is illustrated by a numerical example. (3) A contract coordination mechanism of three-level supply chain is designed, where the manufacturer can outsource from the supplier when capacity is insufficient. Under the situation for the limited capacity of manufacturer and the demand updating of retailer, this thesis analyzes the factors affected the supply chain’s performance. A dual purchase contract is promoted to encourage the retailer make an advanced procurement, so as to eliminate the conflict between the uncertain demand and the uncertain supply. The performance of the three-level supply chain makes a Pareto improvement via the coordination mechanism with appropriate parameters. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the validity of the dual purchase contract. (4) The coordination model of a three-level supply chain which consists of a supplier, a manufacturer and a retailer under demand uncertainty is constructed. The manufacturer transacts with the retailer by providing an option contract and the manufacturer transacts with the supplier by a buyback contract. In this case, a coordination mechanism is designed. Models under centralized decision, decentralized decision, and the coordination mechanism are constructed to analyze the optimal decisions. Finally, the validity of the combined contract mechanism is illustrated by a numerical example. It is revealed that, via adjusting the contract parameters, each member in the three-level supply chain can make a Pareto improvement in the expected profit, compared to the decentralized decision system, and coordination of the three-level supply chain can be achieved in the end.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9371
Appears in Collections:工业信息学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
朱珠.协同采购环境下的供应链建模与契约协调.[博士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2010
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