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题名: 多移动机器人相对动力学建模及其编队控制方法研究
其他题名: Research on Relative Dynamics Modeling and Formation Control of Multiple Moblie Robots
作者: 王争
导师: 韩建达
分类号: TP273
关键词: 多移动机器人 ; 编队控制 ; 相对动力学 ; 分布式预测控制 ; 多旋翼飞行机器人实验平台
索取号: TP273/W39/2011
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011-11-30
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 多机器人系统无论在工作范围、时间和效率等方面都具有单体机器人系统无法比拟的优势。多机器人系统的最大特点在于:通过适当的协调协作机制,使得多个单体机器人系统能够同步且高效的工作。近年来,关于协调协作的方法研究已受到越来越多的关注,成为多机器人系统的重要研究方向之一。本文的关注焦点——编队控制方法也是多机器人协调协作方法中的关键技术之一。 目前已有的编队控制方法通常采用轨迹规划与跟踪控制相结合的2自由度经典控制结构来实现。轨迹规划用来在线生成编队运动中每个个体机器人的期望运动轨迹,跟踪控制负责跟踪轨迹规划中在线生成的期望轨迹。这种结构使得所采用的编队控制方法主要存在两方面不足:一方面,该结构是以个体机器人自主运动控制结构为基础,将每个个体机器人单体运动控制整合在一起,专注于控制每个机器人的绝对状态。而编队控制中更关注且需要控制机器人之间的相对状态;另一方面,轨迹规划方法独立于跟踪控制方法,而且通常忽略每个个体机器人运动特点,导致所规划的期望轨迹很难被个体机器人跟踪。因此,传统编队控制方法通常面对编队控制精度低的问题。 为了解决以上问题,文章采取了基于相对动力学模型设计编队控制策略的思路。首先,提出一种典型移动机器人相对动力学建模方法,并应用这种方法提出基于相对动力学的编队控制方法,以及同传统的基于相对运动学方法相比较的优点。接着,为了能够使整体编队控制效果达到最优或次优,并尽可能节省方法的解算时间,提出了一种基于相对动力学的分布式预测控制方法。最后,设计并实现了一种多旋翼飞行机器人实验平台,用来验证以上提出的编队控制方法。 本文具体研究内容如下: 1)提出一种典型移动机器人的相对动力学模型结构和建模方法。模型结构包括刚体相对动力学和个体动力学两部分。刚体相对动力学建模方法主要以机器人学齐次坐标变换原理和牛顿欧拉方程为基础。这种相对动力学建模方法具有一定通用性,适合于一般移动机器人系统。最后,应用这种建模方法推导出了旋翼飞行机器人相对动力学模型,模型主要包含2个主要部分:刚体相对动力学模型和个体动力学模型,如空气动力学。 2)以旋翼飞行机器人相对动力学模型作为参考模型,提出了旋翼飞行机器人的编队控制方法。这种编队控制方法是一种非线性控制方法,控制结构主要包括两部分:应用了动态输入-输出反馈的线性化方法和线性高斯二次型(LQG)控制方法。这种控制方法能够提高的机器人的相对运动状态的控制精度,从而改进了编队控制效果。 3)为了能够使编队控制效果达到最优,将分布式模型预测控制策略引入到基于相对动力学的编队控制结构中。提出一种新的基于相对动力学模型的分布式预测编队控制方法。该方法最大优点在于:不仅能够在线求解编队指标的有限时域最优化问题,还能够提高计算效率又减少了系统噪声干扰。       4)设计并实现了一种室内多旋翼飞行机器人的实验平台,应用该实验平台,验证本文提出的一部分相对动力学建模与编队控制理论方法。
英文摘要: Comparing to single robot, a team of multiple robot systems (MRS) are dominated in much performance, such as, working range and working efficiency. This is mainly because, among MRS team, the deficiency of each member robot can be greatly remedied through cooperation and coordination with several robots. In recent years, cooperative and coordination algorithm among MRS has gradually been one of the most important research directions, which has also absorbed great attentions from many researchers in the field of MRS. While formation control, a method that is used to control MRS working with fixed geometric formations, is a classical and important cooperative technique. The existing traditional formation control algorithms are often composed of two typical components: trajectory planning algorithm used to produce a desired cooperative behavior, and tracking control algorithm which is in charge of control every member robot to work along the desired behavior. This kind of formulation, however, has two disadvantages: on one hand, it is on the basis of each member robot’s autonomous control, and thus over-emphasizes the absolute states which are less important than relative states in formation control; on the other hand, in this formulation, trajectory planning is separated from tracking control completely, which means the planned desired behavior may be difficult to be tracked by each member robot because the behavior ability of each member robot is not considered. Consequently, formation control algorithm based on the traditional formulation often results in the problem of low lever formation precision. In order to solve the above problem, a new kind of relative dynamics based formation control formulation is proposed in this thesis. Firstly, a relative dynamics modeling method for mobile robot is constructed. Secondly, formation control algorithm based on relative dynamics model is introduced and compared to traditional relative kinematics model based method. Besides, in order to realize the optimal or suboptimal formation control and in order to improve the real time applications of the proposed formation control algorithm, a new kind of optimization based distributed formation control algorithm, being composed of receding horizon strategy and relative dynamics model, is researched. Finally, in order to verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed methods, a multiple rotor flying robots experiment platform is designed and formation control algorithms are tested with respect to it. The detailed research contents of this thesis are as follow: 1) In Chapter 2, relative dynamics modeling method of mobile robot is proposed based on rigid body dynamics modeling method and the theory of Newton-Euler equation. One of the most absorbing advantages of the proposed modeling method is it can be fit for general mobile robot systems. Furthermore, relative dynamics model of rotor flying robot is given by considering both rigid body relative dynamics and other specific model, such as, aerodynamics. 2) Furthermore, in Chapter 3, based on the proposed relative dynamics model, a new kind of nonlinear formation control algorithm of multiple rotor flying robots is designed. The new proposed formation control algorithm is composed of two parts, one is the dynamic input-output feedback linearization controller which is used to linearize the nonlinear dynamics, the other is Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulator for improving the formation performance. 3) In order to improve the formation performance of optimality, distributed model predictive formation control strategy is introduced in Chapter 4 into the relative dynamics model based formation control structure. By doing this, the new formation control algorithm present the advantages optimal formation performance of receding horizon algorithm, as well as the decreased computational burden and reduced noise influence due to the relative dynamics model. 4)  Finally, in Chapter 5, an indoor experiment platform of multiple rotor flying robots is designed. And parts of the above theoretical methods are tested on this platform.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9376
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王争.多移动机器人相对动力学建模及其编队控制方法研究.[博士 学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2011
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