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题名: 多指灵巧手的一体化驱动系统设计及其抓取控制研究
其他题名: Mechatronical Drive System Design and Grasp Control Research of Dexterous Hand
作者: 于清洋
导师: 周维佳 ; 李斌
分类号: TP242
关键词: 多指灵巧手 ; 机电一体化 ; 预测控制
索取号: TP242/Y74/2010
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010-07-30
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 手是我们身体上最灵巧的部位,54块不同大小骨骼的组合使其能够完成复杂的任务。研究人员们希望机器人末端执行器的功能和运动形式更加接近人手,以能够满足任务要求的不断提高和替代人工作业的要求发展。机器人末端执行器从最简单的平行结构的机械钳慢慢变为复杂的多指灵巧手,也使得多指灵巧手成为当今机器人学领域最为热门的研究课题之一。随着机器人技术研究的深入开展,其应用领域已经远远超过了最初的工业领域,走向医疗、服务、太空应用等。 多手指驱动技术、控制技术以及抓取理论是拟人手研究中的重点和难点问题。在较小的空间里布置数十个自由度对驱动和控制都提出了较高要求,本文在机器人学国家重点实验室课题《拟人灵巧手研制》的资助下,从驱动和感知系统到控制系统对灵巧手开展了深入的研究,具体如下: 1) 根据多指灵巧手对于驱动器要求的特殊性,提出一种适用于多指灵巧手的小型柔性机电一体化驱动器的设计思路,并对其进行可行性分析,最终确定其设计方案,并对该方案进行仿真验证,最后提出改进设想。这种一体化驱动器不仅适用于灵巧手,也同样适用于和灵巧手具有相同或相似要求的系统,能够很好解决其小空间紧凑的要求。 2)搭建了第一代灵巧手试验平台:SIA-1手,这是一个按照人手比例设计的五手指灵巧手。完成了其机械部分的加工,以及控制系统的硬件和软件的结构设计和实现。总结了在整个试验平台搭建过程中所得到的经验和遇到的问题,为下一代的平台改进提供方案和依据。 3)针对多指灵巧手的第一代实验平台SIA-1的特殊驱动方式和手指的特殊结构,建立其正向和反向运动学,给出了电机转角和钢丝绳长变化,绳长变化和各手指关节角度,以及最终各关节角度与手指末端位置的关系。通过实验验证了该运动学结果的正确性。利用拉格朗日方法建立了手指的动力学模型,进行了多指抓持运动学规划及抓取力研究,为在该平台上进行控制方法验证提供了基础。 4)提出了一种基于预测控制的动态目标物抓握控制策略。控制目标是在目标物和灵巧手相对速度为0的时候,相对位置也为0。针对在实际中由于灵巧手的机械误差和驱动电机的滞后等原因所产生模型失配,从在线估计与补偿方面进行预测控制器的在线修正。通过基于卡尔曼估计方法实时获得系统动力学模型差,并且通过设定的二次型最优指标函数对预测控制量计算结果进行补偿,消除模型失配对其的负面影响。
英文摘要: Hand is the most dexterous part of the human body. It consists of 54 bones in different sizes, which endows it with the capability of accomplishing complicated tasks. The researchers hope that the functions and the motion style of the humanoid mechanical hands can act like the real human hands as much as possible, which makes the research on the multiple-finger dexterous hand a hot topic in robotics The end-effector of the robot has also developed from the parallel jaw grippers to complex configurations of dexterous multi-fingered hands.. With the fast development of the robotic technology, the application of robots has extended from the original manufacturing industry into health care industry, service industry and outer space exploration. Among the restriction factors, the steering technology, the control technology and the grasping theory are the most important ones in the humanoid hand research. Supported by the Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Robotics, this thesis researches the steering and perception system and the control system of the dexterous hands, the main contents include: 1) According to the special requirements that the multiple-finger dexterous hands laid on the driver, we first design a small flexible mechatronic driver. Second, the feasibility of the design is analyzed and conformed. Then the design is tested by the simulation. Finally, improvements are added into the design. This mechatronic driver can meet the requirements of compact space, which not only fits the dexterous hand, but also fits the systems with similar features. 2) We construct the first generation of the dexterous hand platform: SIA-1, a five-finger dexterous hand designed as the human hand structure. The mechanical parts of the hand are completed. The hardware and software of the control system are designed and implemented. During the construction process, the confronted problems are recorded for the purpose of accumulate experiences to develop the next generation platform. 3) The forward and inverse kinematics of the multiple-finger dexterous hand is deduced based on the special driving style and the unique structure of SIA-1. In the deduction, the relationships between the motor’s rotation angle and the length of the steel rope, the relationships between the joint angle and the length of the steel rope, and the relationships between the joint angle and the position of the finger terminals
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9377
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
于清洋.多指灵巧手的一体化驱动系统设计及其抓取控制研究.[博士 学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2010
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