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题名: 管内环境自适应移动机器人的设计与运动控制
其他题名: Design and Motion Control of the In-pipe Inspection Robots with Environment Adaptability
作者: 李鹏
导师: 马书根 ; 王越超
分类号: TP242
关键词: 管内机器人 ; 环境自适应移动机构 ; 螺旋驱动 ; 运动控制
索取号: TP242/L33/2010
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010-02-05
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 本文的研究内容是围绕“863”计划项目“基于管道内自适应移动机构的探查机器人的研究”展开。其目的立足于开发管内探测机器人相关的自适应机构和相关设计技术,为增强管内探测机器人的环境适应性做初步的探索与尝试,为以后开发更高级的机器人系统提供机构和硬件上的支持,积累相关的研究经验。本文的主要工作由三部分组成:提出了管道内自适应移动机构的概念并以此设计基于自适应机构的管道机器人;对机器人的运动形式和机理进行了分析和研究;结合管内机器人的机构和作业特点提出了以最小能耗为目标的运动控制方法。 论文首先提出了管内机器人的九种运动形式,这九种形式可以视为管内机器人的常见基本形式。应用这九种运动形式中的一种或几种,可以综合出相应类别的管内移动机器人。机器人的运动形式直接影响其运动性能,因此研究管内机器人的基本运动形式对开发新的管内机器人有着重要的意义。 为使管内探查机器人具有环境适应性,提出了管内环境自适应移动机构的概念,它利用单个驱动器作为动力源,通过机构设计使得机器人具有两种输出形式,在动力约束条件不同的情况下表现为不同的工作模式。机器人在单个电动机的驱动下,通过两组驱动臂的相互协调工作让机器人能够自主跨越管内的同心障碍,而不需要人为干预。 螺旋驱动运动形式特殊,采用矢量建模方法,对不同结构的形式驱动臂形式对运动的影响进行分析。对保持架旋转时的螺旋驱动形式进行分析,分析发现在电动机输出不变的情况下,在应用保持架旋转这一驱动形式时比保持架不旋转时的移动速度要低。而且如果利用保持架旋转形式不当,会出现功率内耗的问题。 提出了一种具有通用性的速度自适应机构,采用螺旋弹簧为弹力部件,降低了设计难度,在结构上解除了滚轮偏心距离必须大于滚轮半径的设计约束。分析表明,装备该机构的螺旋驱动机器人在负载较小时,能够以较快的方式移动;当负载增大时,机器人的倾斜角变小移动速度降低使得负载能力增加。因此,速度自适应机构能够在一定范围内适应负载波动的变化达到机构被动适应环境变化的目的。 提出了具有自救功能的管内自适应移动机器人。改进中,发现了滚轮运动不稳定的问题,为了提高运动的可靠性,利用已有的研究经验,重新设计相应的传动机构、缩紧联动机构和运动控制机构。实验结果表明,机器人能够在与环境出现“机械卡死”时,利用机构自身的特性,自主的转换工作模式,在电动机转向不改变的前提下,向远离障碍的方向移动实现自救功能。 研究了管内机器人在直管道中的最小能耗运动控制方法。引入机械损耗的电动机等效模型,建立机器人的状态方程,然后结合系统的能耗函数,运用最优控制方法得到机器人在巡航模式和定位模式下的最小能耗运动规律。将该方法与基于铜损失最小和正弦控制方法进行了研究,运用相同电动机等效模型,对三种方法进行比较,结果显示基于最小能耗的方法消耗的总能量最少。 最后搭建完整的机器人探测系统平台。提出一种能够使螺旋驱动机器人获得前向图像信息的载体平台,将摄像机安装在该平台上,机器人能够获得前方的管内图像。操作者通过监控系统向机器人发出控制命令并可通过操作界面观察到机器人传回的管内图像。机器人的管内实验证明了保持架影响机器人运动的结论并观察到了功率内耗现象,而且移动试验和越障试验也证实了自适应移动机器人的移动能力。
英文摘要: This research is supported by The National High Technology Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2006AA04Z230—Research on an adaptive mobile mechanism for the in-pipe inspection robot. The aims of our research are to design a robot that is based on the adaptive mobile mechanism and to develop the related technologies. In the first part, we propose the concept of the adaptive mobile mechanism and design two robots that are based on this concept. We also investigate the kinematic characteristics of screw drive robot under the different structures. Finally, we propose the minimum energy control method for enhancing the efficiency of the robot system. We classify the locomotion mode of the in-pipe robots into nine basic forms. Most of the available in-pipe robots can be derived by using one or multiple basic forms. We propose a concept of the diameter-adaptive mobile mechanism, it uses one actuator as the power source while enables the robot with two possible locomotion forms by designing the delicate mechanism. The mechanism acts differently under different dynamic constraints. Based on the diameter-adaptive mechanism, a prototype that equips with one DC motor can surmount the concentric step automatically by using the former driving arm and latter driving arm cooperatively. We used the vector analysis method to model the kinematics of the screw type robot with different structures of the driving arms, and find that different geometric parameters of the driving arms. We also analyze the kinematics of the robot while the robot’s stator keeps rotating, and find that the speed of the robot may get down, when the stator rotates. Moreover, when the angle of the stator set inappropriately, the power self-consumption may occur. We propose the velocity adaption mechanism that uses a common helical spring as the elastic part. Compared with the structure of THES-I robot, this concept of the velocity adaption mechanism simplifies the design process and free the structure constraint of THES-I, which means the value of the roller offset must be bigger than the value of the roller radius. The speed of the robot that equipped with velocity adaption mechanism may decrease, when the payload of the robot increases; and the speed of the robot may come up when the payload of the robot decreases. This implies that the velocity adaption mechanism adapts the velocity passively according to the fluctuation of the payload. We proposed a robot with self-rescue function. We find the instability of the roller on the latter driving arms. To solve the roller’s instability, a motion control mechanism is designed and used on a new prototype, whose transmission, lock-up mechanism and linkage mechanism are totally redesigned according to the first prototype. The results show that the robot can change its working mode automatically when a stuck occurred. When the working mode changes, the driving motor of the robot just keeps working and does not reverse its motion, this feature may protect the motor under the stuck situation. We use variation calculus to derive a minimum energy control for the robot by setting the total energy consumption as the target function and introducing the equivalent model of the DC motor that includes the mechanical loss influence. Compared with minimum loss control method and sinusoidal control method, the minimum energy method consumes the least energy. In the last chapter, we propose a platform that carries a CCD camera to provide the robot with axial inspection capability. The operator can send motion command via the control-monitor interface and receive the image from the CCD camera. Finally, many experiments are conducted to investigate the influence of the rotation of the stator, the power self-consumption, and mobility etc.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9379
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李鹏.管内环境自适应移动机器人的设计与运动控制.[博士 学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2010
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