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题名: 机器人化月表采样器控制系统的研究
其他题名: The Study of the Control System of a Robotic Lunar Surface Sampler
作者: 胡志美
导师: 李斌
分类号: TP242
关键词: 机器人 ; 月表采样器 ; 控制系统
索取号: TP242/H53/2010
学位专业: 控制理论与控制工程
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2010-06-03
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 月球是离地球最近的天体,探索月球是人类认识太空的第一步。相比地球,月球环境非常恶劣,人类无法长时间在月球上进行各种考察活动,将月球探测车送上月球,通过其采集月表的岩石、土壤样品以获得月球的各种详细信息,是了解月球环境最直接的手段之一。 20世纪60年代以来,月球的科学研究进入蓬勃发展时期,发射了大量月球卫星,尤其是6次载人登月、3次不载人登月以及最近的几次月球探测活动,积累了大量的月球数据,大大加深了人类对月球的认识。然而,到目前为止,月球的探测还主要集中在月球的正面,月球纵向剖面的采样和研究还无法进行。因此,月球的研究尚有许多重大的基础科学问题留待我们继续探索和研究。 本文叙述了星空探测钻机的研究和发展现状,指出了现有的钻机发展的智能化水平。提出了一种用于月壤采集的多功能机器人化月表采样器。该采样器系统由仿生蚌式复合铲和转塔式钻机两大部分组成,仿生蚌式复合铲具有多种采样形式,转塔式钻机解决了空间受限的情况下采集深层样品的问题。机器人化月表采样器采用了基于CAN总线的分布式控制系统。本文在论述了机器人控制系统的硬件平台构建后,给出了基于此硬件平台的软件实现。 本文详细论述了采样器的两个主要工作部件的采样原理,分别对转塔式转机的工作原理以及仿生蚌式复合铲的工作受力情况进行了分析。根据分析的结果合理地采用控制方式,进行了样机采样实验。实验结果表明,转塔式钻机能够在低速的情况下,平稳运行并获取深层样本;而仿生蚌式复合铲能够实现表层样本的采集以及实现岩石的夹取采样。采样实验验证了控制系统的基本功能及其有效性。采样器基于该控制系统能够完成深层样本以及表层样本的采样工作,在遇到障碍的时候,控制系统能够及时地做出反应。最后,本文对机器人化月表采样器控制系统的发展和后继研究工作进行了展望。
英文摘要: Moon is the nearest planet from Earth. Moon’s exploration is the first step to the understanding of space. Compared to Earth, moon environment is very bad, humans are unable to work long hours on it, so it’s a best and direct choice to launch a Lunar rover to collect the detailed information about the rocks and earth samples. Since the 60s of the last century, Moon’s research steps into the boom period. Multiple Lunar satellites have been launched, six times manned landing, three times unmanned landing and recent lunar exploration activities, these all exploration activities have accumulated a large number of lunar data and deepen the human understanding about Moon. But, up to now, the Lunar exploration is mainly focused on the front side of the Moon, the sample and study of the deepen layer could not be carried out. So, there are still many basic science problems to probe and research. The dissertation gives a detailed description of the research and development status about the planet sampler, points out the intelligence level of the existing sampler. The paper presents a multifunction robot lunar sampler for the collection of the moon earth. The sampler system constitutes of bionic clam shovel and turret rig. The bionic clam shovel has a variety of sampling forms, the turret rig is adopted to sample deeper layer in the space limited situation. The robot lunar sampler uses CAN-bus based distributed control system. The paper discusses the establishment of the hardware platform of the robot control system in the first part, and then gives the realization of the software subsystem based on the hardware platform. The paper detailed discusses the sampling principle of the two main components of the sampler, and analyses the basic principle of the turret rig and the force on the bionic clam shovel in the working conditions. The appropriate control scheme has been adopted based on the results of the analysis, and the sampling experiments have been conducted. The experiment results illustrate that the turret rig could work smoothly and get the deeper layer sampler in the low operating speed situation; the bionic clam shovel could collect the surface samplers and grip the rocks sampler. The sampling experiment verified the basic function and feasibility of the control system. Based on this control system, the sampler could get the surface samplers and the deeper layer samplers. The control system could respond timely and appropriately when the sampler meets the obstacles. In the last part, the paper gives the prospects for the development of the control system of robot lunar sampler and the follow-up research work.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9381
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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