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轮-履复合变形移动机器人的研究
Alternative TitleStudy on a Transformable Wheel-track Robot with Self-adaptive mobile Mechanism
李智卿1,2
Department机器人学研究室
Thesis Advisor马书根 ; 王越超
ClassificationTP242
Keyword复合移动机器人 轮式 履带式 自适应移动机构 约束关系
Call NumberTP242/L36/2011
Pages157页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2011-05-25
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract本文的研究内容是围绕国家“863”计划支持项目“废墟洞穴搜救机器人的研究” (2007AA041502-5)和中国科学院科技创新项目展开的。针对非结构环境中路面软硬相间、平坦与崎岖并存的地形特征,结合轮式、履带式移动机构的运动优点,研制一种对非结构环境具有自适应能力的轮-履复合变形移动机器人(NEZA-I)。其结构紧凑,通过移动机构平台自身机构的调节而以不同的运动模式和运动姿态实现对复杂地面环境的自适应。 本研究的主要工作包括:设计新型轮-履复合变形移动机器人(NEZA-I);优化分析NEZA-I机器人移动机构平台的机构参数;研究NEZA-I机器人传动系统的传动原理并估计其系统参数;对NEZA-I机器人的移动机构平台进行运动分析和静力分析,建立该平台与地面之间的约束关系模型;建立NEZA-I机器人的移动机构系统势能的数学模型,并从机器人系统能量消耗的角度出发来优化NEZA-I移动机构平台的相关参数;最后通过实验对该平台的机构参数分析方法及结果进行验证,最终验证本文所提出的NEZA-I机器人自适应移动机构平台概念的合理性和可行性。本文将以上几个部分相互穿插有机结合成统一整体。 首先在分析轮式、腿式、履带式、复合式等地面移动机构性能及其结构特征的基础上,提出并研制NEZA-I移动机器人。NEZA-I机器人的主要移动部件为两个相同的可变形轮—履复合(Transformable wheel-track, TWT)移动模块组成。每个TWT模块在一个驱动力的作用下能以轮式和履带式两种运动模式在复杂路面上运动,也能根据地面约束力的变化而改变运动模式(即轮—履互换)和调整运动姿态(即改变履带几何形状)。对移动机构平台的设计方法不仅可提高驱动电动机的使用效率,也使得对机器人的控制变得简单。 针对NEZA-I机器人的自适应移动机构平台的机构特征和运动特性,对该平台的TWT模块内部构件之间的运动关系进行分析,建立各运动构件之间的运动关系模型,对TWT模块的结构参数进行优化分析,并通过仿真验证和实验的方法对机构参数的优化结果进行验证。 研究机器人传动系统的自适应机理,分析传动系统内部各转体之间的传动关系、研究传动系统参数的分析方法并获得该系统的参数。 研究机器人以轮式和履带式两种运动模式运动、运动模式的转换、运动姿态的调整等等运动特征。对该移动平台分别处于几种不同运动情形时进行静力分析,建立移动机构内部相关构件与地面之间的约束关系模型,分析机器人内部相关构件参数对机器人的环境自适应性能的影响。对NEZA-I移动机构平台系统势能进行分析,建立其数学模型,分析机器人在处于运动模式转化及运动姿态调整过程中影响移动机构平台系统势能的主要影响因素。为减小机器人在运动模式转化及运动姿态调整过程中系统能量的消耗,对机器人移动平台的复位机构参数进行优化。 最后通过实验测试机器人的基本运动性能、越障性能、以及对环境的自适应性能,测试该平台不同的运动模式和运动姿态对其能耗和对环境适应性能的影响,测试机器人复位机构参数对机器人能耗和运动性能的影响。验证该移动机构平台的机构参数分析方法及其结果的正确性,最终验证本文所提出的NEZA-I机器人自适应移动机构概念的合理性和可行性。
Other AbstractThis work is supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (2007AA041502-5) and the Technology and Innovation Fund of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. To maneuver in unstructured terrains where the ground might be soft, hard, flat or rough, a transformable wheel-track robot (NEZA-I) with a self-adaptive mobile mechanism is proposed and developed. The structure of NEZA-I robot is very compact. The robot has the advantages of the wheel type mechanism and the track type mechanism. It moves in the complex and unpredictable environments with different locomotion modes and postures, and it has the prominent self-adaptability to such unstructured environments.   The work roughly included six parts. The first is that a novel NEZA-I robot was designed. The second is that structure parameters of mobile mechanism were analyzed and optimized. The third part presented the pricinple of the self-adaptive drive system and estimited its paramters. In the forth part, both the kinematics analysis and the static analysis for the mobile mechanism were studied; the mathematic model of the constraint relation between the mobile mechanism and the ground, abbreviated to “MGCR model”, was built when the robot was in some classical eviroments; the potential energy of mobile mechanism was analyzed; the related parameters were optimized to decrease the energy consumption. The sixth part described the results of basic experiments performed to prove that the parameters used for the mobile mechanism are valid, and to verify the adaptability of this mobile platform. The several parts are interpenetrated and combined into the whole. Based on the analysis of both the mobile mechanisms and their locomotion performances, such as wheel-type mechanism, leg-type mechanism, track-type mechanism, hybrid mechanism and so on, we proposed and developed the NEZA-I robot. The TWT unit is the main mobile mechanism for the NEZA-I robot. Driven only by one servomotor, each TWT unit can efficiently select between track mode and wheel mode for optimal locomotion, autonomously switching locomotion mode and track configuration with changes in the terrain. It can simplify the control algorithms of the robot and make the robot less dependent upon its control system while it runs over the unstructured environment. Meanwhile, it can also make motor more efficient. It is thus necessary to analyse both the structure features and the motion features of NEZA-I mobile platform. The kinematic relations between the inside parts of the TWT unit was analysed and the related mathematics model were builts. Based on these mathematics models, the structure parameters of the TWT unit were analysed and optimized. The simulation results and experiment results proved that the analysis method and the optimized parameters of the TWT unit were valid. The self-adaptive drive system was designed and its self-adaptive principle to the unstructured evironments was presented. The kinematic relations between the inside parts of the drive system were studied. The method to estimate the parameters of the drive system were studied and the related parameters were estimated. The locomotion mode and posture of the robot were analyzed when the robot was in some motion states. When the NEZA-I robot moves in some typical unstructured environments, something maybe happen to the robot. Based on the comprehensive analysis to the static analysis results of the mobile mechanism and its inside parts, we set up the MGCR model. Based on this model, the related mechanism parameters, which infulence on the self-adaptability of the robot to the unstructured environment, are analysized. The potential energy of mobile mechanism was analyzed and some mechanism parameters were found. These parameters have an effect on the energy consumption of NEZA-I robot while the robot changes the locomotion mode or adjusts the locomotion posture. The potential energy was minimized by optimized mechanism paramters to reduce the energy consumption of the robot. Finally, the some experiments verified the robot’s motion performance, its negotiating-obstacle performance, and its adaptability to the unstructured environments. Some experiments tested that the locomotion mode and posture of the robot could influence the robot on the energy consumption and the adaptability to unstructured environments, and others tested that the parameters of resetting mechanism could influence the energy consumption and the motility of robot. So, the results of these experiments proved that both the analysis method and the mechanism parameters are reasonable, and that NEZA-I robot is reasonable and feasible.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9392
Collection机器人学研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李智卿. 轮-履复合变形移动机器人的研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2011.
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