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题名: 轮腿复合型移动机器人运动及构型控制
其他题名: Motion and Reconfiguration Control of leg-wheel hybrid Mobile Robot
作者: 鲁京立
导师: 卜春光
分类号: TP242
关键词: 轮腿复合式机器人 ; 运动控制 ; 构型控制 ; 控制系统
索取号: TP242/L83/2010
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2010-06-03
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 本文的研究源于国家863高技术计划资助课题“油气田现场地面应急救援机器人”,该课题研究目标是面向油气田现场应急救援需求,研制实用化地面移动机器人。油气田现场地面应急救援对机器人的机动性、通过能力和续航能力都提出了较高的要求,为此,课题组提出了六轮腿复合式移动机器人(六轮车)技术方案。六轮车采用滑动转向原理实现转向,它有六个轮和腿,每个轮和腿均为独立电机驱动,六驱动轮为机器人运动提供强的驱动力和高的机动性,可控制摆腿使机器人变化出多种构型,在线配置机器人的重心位置,提高机器人通过能力和稳定性。轮-腿复合式移动机器人具有明显优势,但要将其优势发挥出来,还必须针对其移动机构特点,开发相应的控制技术。本文主要针对早期方法中存在的问题和不足,重点对运动控制、构型控制、控制软件及地面站三方面内容展开研究。在运动控制方面,早期主要采用基于单轮速度的运动控制方法,该方法的优点是简单易实现,但深入的理论分析和试验研究表明,在野外地形环境下,该方法易导致驱动轮间出现拖拽现象,牵引效率和能源利用率较低。为此本文提出了基于单轮力矩的运动控制方法,即将机器人的速度控制转化为对单驱动轮的力矩控制,实现驱动轮之间力的协调,同时结合防滑移控制实现机器人的直线运动控制;通过改进运动学模型,优化各轮速度的分配,提高机器人转向效率。最后在六轮车上开展了相应的对比实验,对基于单轮力矩运动控制方法的有效性进行了验证。在构型控制方面,本文针对六轮车的结构特点,通过改进摆腿结构,间接感知轮-地接触状况,并以此为基础提出了针对野外地形环境下不同应用需要的构型控制方法,包括在不平整地面上的姿态控制、沟坎等障碍物的越障控制和斜坡上行进的姿态控制,这三种控制方法均在六轮车上进行了实验验证。 在控制软件和地面站设计方面,基于QNX实时多任务操作系统和多任务软件设计方法,结合机器人系统功能要求和控制硬件特点,设计了分层的软件系统结构,并编程实现了嵌入式实时控制软件,另外,根据机器人监控的实际需要,完成了地面站硬件和监控软件的设计。
英文摘要: This research is based on a project-Emergency Solution and Rescue Ground Mobile Robot for the Oil and Gas Field which is supported by National 863 High Technology Program, the purpose of this project is to design a practical ground mobile robot for the emergency solution and rescue in the oil and gas field, the complexity of operated environment requires the robot to have high mobility, strong environment adaptability and long endurance capacity. Therefore, a six-leg-wheel hybrid mobile robot is designed by Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The six-leg-wheel hybrid robot which uses the skid-steering structure has six legs and wheels, each leg and wheel is driven by a motor, six driving wheels provide the robot with high mobility and strong driving forces. At the same time, the legs can be controlled to change the robot’s reconfiguration and adjust the center of gravity online, thus to improve the robot’s environment adaptability and safety. Leg-wheel hybrid robot has so many obvious advantages, but only after the control methods are designed can these advantages be achieved. Considering the disadvantages of the early research, this thesis researches on the motion control, reconfiguration control, control software and ground monitor station. In the motion control, the early control method which is based on the wheel speed model is easy to be used and realized, but through the theoretical analysis and experiments, we find out that the push-and-pull phenomenon among driving wheels often occurred which brings on the low traction efficiency and low energy efficiency. Therefore, this paper proposes a new control method which is based on the wheel torque model can convert the robot’s speed control into driving wheels’ torque control, and it can realize the torque cooperation among driving wheels, in addition, it combines the slip control method to realize the linear motion control, and it also can optimize the speed distribution in driving wheels by improving the kinematics model to improve the robot’s steering efficiency. At last, the comparative experiments are done in the six-leg-wheel hybrid robot to verify whether the control method we propose is effective or not. In the reconfiguration control, aiming at the characteristics of six-leg-wheel hybrid robot, we improve the legs’ structures to sense the contact state between wheel and earth, and then we propose three reconfiguration control methods for different requirements in the outdoor environment, including posture control in the rough terrain, obstacle-over control methods and posture control while the robot is driving in a slope. These three control methods are experimented in the six-leg-wheel hybrid robot. In the control software and ground monitor station, we use QNX RTOS as the control software design platform, then according to the requirements of robot’s functions and control system hardware, we design the multi-task control software which uses four layers structure. In the other hand, according to the requirements of actual application, we design the hardware and the monitor software of the ground monitor station.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9393
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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