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题名: 水陆两栖蛇形机器人的环境适应运动控制方法研究
其他题名: Locomotion Control of an Amphibious Snake-like Robot for its Environmental Adaptation
作者: 郁树梅
导师: 马书根 ; 王越超
分类号: TP242
关键词: 蛇形曲线 ; 步态生成 ; 水陆两栖 ; 蛇形机器人 ; 下潜
索取号: TP242/Y84/2011
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011-05-25
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 与传统的轮式和腿式机器人相比,蛇形机器人依靠身体的摆动获得与地面的摩擦力而前行,更能适应崎岖地面及沙土等松软地面。另外,蛇形机器人具有颀长的体态,超冗余自由度的身体结构使其能够以多种步态运动,在应对复杂地形和狭窄环境方面具备一定优势。所以蛇形机器人在灾难救援和环境勘察方面具有广阔的应用前景。水陆两栖蛇形机器人以其优越的防水性能和水下运动能力,比传统的陆地蛇形机器人更能适应各种复杂环境如浅滩沼泽、核电站等,因而具有更加重要的研究价值和研究意义。 本论文的研究内容是围绕国家“863”计划资助项目“水陆两栖蛇形机器人的研究”展开的。立足于研制一种新型水陆两栖蛇形机器人,使其具有灵活的陆地和水中运动能力,并针对水陆两栖蛇形机器人的环境适应运动做出深入研究。研究内容主要包括水陆两栖蛇形机器人系统的研制、水陆两栖蛇形机器人的基于启发式思想的三维步态产生方法研究、蛇形机器人螺旋步态的运动性能研究、水陆两栖蛇形机器人陆地和水下环境适应性步态的运动性能研究等。具体的研究内容如下: 1)蛇形机器人步态实验平台及水陆两栖蛇形机器人系统的研制。蛇形机器人的步态实验平台为一台二维模块化蛇形机器人和一台三维模块化蛇形机器人,本文利用这两个平台对水陆两栖蛇形机器人的步态产生算法进行初步研究和验证。水陆两栖蛇形机器人作为本文的主要实验平台,在防水密封和水陆运动的灵活性方面具有很高要求。针对这些需求,以耦合驱动单元作为水陆两栖蛇形机器人模块的关节以保证整体样机的灵活运动;采用一种新型的关节密封机构设计,在确保样机防水功能的同时,不削减关节的固有运动空间;在样机每个模块的周身均匀布置8个轮桨机构以增强机器人的扭转和翻滚能力,从而使机器人的三维步态更加多样化和流畅化,同时轮桨一体化的设计改善了机器人的划水能力。水陆两栖蛇形机器人的控制系统采用基于模块化控制单元的分布式控制模式。机器人头部装有CCD摄像头,可通过无线传输装置实时传回所探查到环境的影像信息。 2)水陆两栖蛇形机器人的基于启发式思想的三维步态产生方法研究。针对蛇形机器人的超冗余结构给其步态产生带来的困难,提出一种基于启发式思想的蛇形机器人三维步态产生方法。首先由简化的Serpenoid曲线(蛇形曲线)得到蛇形机器人的基本的二维步态,蜿蜒步态和行波步态;对蛇形机器人的水平面运动和竖直面运动进行复合得到机器人的三维运动雏形;继而通过实验获取基本二维步态的控制规律和运动性能,以此作为启发将三维运动的雏形进化为各种三维步态。通过对陆地蛇形机器人的实验验证了蛇形机器人三维步态的产生方法,并得到了各种三维步态的运动性能。作为蛇形机器人三维步态中的一种特殊构型步态,螺旋步态在杆状物体攀援、管内探查等方面具有重要的应用前景。在分析螺旋步态的研究现状的基础上,由启发式的三维步态产生方法,得到一种新的螺旋步态的产生方法。通过实验得到螺旋步态的运动性能与相应控制参数的关系。采用D-H方法建立螺旋步态的空间运动学模型并得到螺旋步态的空间构型与相应控制参数之间的量化关系,对螺旋步态的实际应用具有重要的参考价值。 3)水陆两栖蛇形机器人的陆地和水下步态以及环境适应运动控制研究。应用本文提出的基于启发式思想的三维步态产生方法得到水陆两栖蛇形机器人的多种陆地和水下步态,包括蜿蜒步态、行波步态、侧向蜿蜒步态、U形翻滚步态、S形翻滚步态以及螺旋翻滚步态。通过实验得到水陆两栖蛇形机器人各种步态的陆地及水下的运动性能,以及步态性能与环境适应之间的关系。在水陆两栖蛇形机器人的水中运动能力方面,通过实验验证了其水中前进、后退及转弯能力。对水陆两栖蛇形机器人来说,上浮和下潜步态是其改变在水中垂直方位的唯一途径。本文提出一种逐节升降俯仰方向上关节高度的方法,成功实现水陆两栖蛇形机器人的上浮和下潜运动步态,从而提高了水陆两栖蛇形机器人的水中机动性能并满足一定的环境适应要求。
英文摘要: Undulating itself on the ground to generate the forward force, snake-like robots are more adaptable to the uneven ground or soft ground such as sand than traditional robots with driven wheels or legs. Besides, snake-like robots have slim bodies to conquer the narrow spaces. The hyper-redundant body structure brings modality of gaits to traverse tough terrains. With those advantages, snake-like robots are highly expected to be applied in the rescue after disasters and inspections of dangerous environments. Compared with traditional snake-like robots, amphibious snake-like robots have water-proof bodies and excellent locomotion performance in the water, and they are more adaptable to the complex environments such as swamps and nuclear power stations. Therefore, amphibious snake-like robots are well worth deep researches. This research is supported by the China National 863 Project—Research on an Amphibious Snake-like Robot. Based on the development of a novel amphibious snake-like robot with flexible locomotion ability on ground and in water, deep researches are to be made aiming at the robot’s adaptation to the environments during the locomotion. The research mainly includes the heuristic three-dimensional gait generation method, study on the performance of helical gait, development of the amphibious snake-like robot system, and the research on the amphibious snake-like robot’s adaptation to the terrestrial and aquatic environments by various gaits. The contents of this thesis can be summarized mainly as follows: 1) Experimental platforms for snake-like robot’s gait generation and development of an amphibious snake-like robot     The experimental platforms of snake-like robot’s gait generation include a two-dimensional snake-like robot and a three-dimensional snake-like robot, both of which own modular design. Amphibious snake-like robot’s gait generation method will firstly be generated and studied on these two platforms. An amphibious snake-like robot has strict standard in its water-proof design and the joints’ flexibility. Aiming at those requirements, the coupled drive units are used as the joints of the robot to ensure the robot body’s flexibility; the water-proof parts are newly designed with no harm to the work room of the joints; 8 wheeled oars are fitted around each module to enhance the robot’s rolling and twisting ability, meanwhile the oars improve the robot’s aquatic locomotion. The prototype adopts a decentralized control structure with modular control units. The robot head has a CCD camera fixed, which can transmit the inspected images through wireless transmission equipments. 2) A heuristic three-dimensional gait generation for amphibious snake-like robots  The hyper-redundant body structure brings difficulties in the gait generation of a snake-like robot. To solve the problem, a heuristic three-dimensional gait generation method is proposed. Firstly a simplified Serpenoid curve is used to generate the basic two-dimensional gaits, which are the serpentine gait and the concertina gait; then a rudiment of the three-dimensional gait is obtained by combining the basic locomotion on the horizontal and vertical planes; finally, control laws and locomotion performances of the basic two-dimensional gaits are obtained as the heuristic source to evolve the rudiment into various three-dimensional gaits.  The terrestrial experiments prove the method and locomotion performance of the three-dimensional gaits are obtained. Owning a special configuration, the helical gait must be applicable in the pole climbing and pipe inspections. Based on a wide investigation of researches on the helical gait, a new generation method for the helical gait is proposed using the heuristic three-dimensional gait generation. The relationship between the gait’s performance and the control parameters are obtained in the experiments. The gait’s kinematical model is built using D-H method and the quantitative relationship is also obtained by analysis. 3) The terrestrial and aquatic gaits of an amphibious snake-like robot and the motion control for the robot’s adaptation to the environments     Applying the proposed heuristic gait generation method on the amphibious snake-like robot’s prototype, diversiform terrestrial and aquatic gaits are obtained, such as the serpentine gait, the concertina gait, the lateral serpentine gait, the arc shape rolling gait, the S-shape rolling gait and the helical rolling gait. The terrestrial and aquatic gait performances are obtained in the experiments, so as the relationship of the gait performance and the environment adaptation. Regarding to the aquatic locomotion ability, experiments validate the robot’s ability of moving forward, retreat and turning. The diving in and diving out gaits is the only resort to change the robot vertical positions. By changing the joints’ height in the pitch direction one by one, the diving in and diving out gaits are realized on the amphibious snake-like robot. The robot’s aquatic maneuverability is improved and the environment adaptation is satisfied to a certain extent.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9405
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
郁树梅.水陆两栖蛇形机器人的环境适应运动控制方法研究.[博士 学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2011
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