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题名: 宜人化旋翼飞行机器人地面站设计与实现
其他题名: The Design and Implementation of User-friendly Ground Station of Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
作者: 王启久
导师: 韩建达
分类号: TP242
关键词: 航空仪表 ; 电子地图 ; 无线数据传输 ; Qt/Embedded ; FIR
索取号: TP242/W35/2010
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2010-06-03
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 无人机,指无机载作业人员即可飞行的一类飞行器。因为无人机生存能力强,效费比高,使用方便,功能多样,能有效降低战争中人员伤亡而受到广泛重视,目前各国都在竞相发展无人机技术。旋翼无人机作为一类特殊的无人机,能够完成普通固定翼无人机无法完成的机动动作如低空低速巡航、定点悬停、垂直起降、协调转弯等,因此在军用领域和民用领域都得到广泛应用。实际应用的无人机系统除了无人机平台本身还包括:有效载荷、地面站、数据链路以及发射与回收装置等。作为旋翼无人机系统的重要组件和人机接口,地面站用于完成无人机平台监控,路径规划,载荷监控及载荷信息接收与处理等,在对旋翼无人机系统的研究中,我们发现功能完备,安全稳定,机动灵活,易于扩展的地面站对整个无人机系统功能实现至关重要,而地面站性能也在很大程度上决定了无人机系统性能。针对上述需求,参照国内外先进的无人机系统地面站设计理念与实际飞行中遇到的问题,本文提出了由便携式地面监控子系统,手持式地面监控子系统及定向天线跟踪子系统组成的地面站系统设计方案。便携式地面监控子系统硬件平台采用一体化工控机,软件基于微软Windows操作系统及VC++应用程序框架进行设计。航空仪表设计采用Xtreme Toolkit工具包提供的专业仪表控件,完成对旋翼飞行机器人状态信息监测。电子地图设计使用Google公司提供的Google Earth API,将Google Earth客户端嵌入监控子系统应用程序,形成子系统电子地图。无线数据传输模块硬件采用XStream无线射频调制解调器,软件则使用微软提供的MSComm控件,实现了无线数据传输功能。视频采集模块硬件选用麦恩公司的VCap2860视频采集卡及其软件开发包,实现了视频信息的采集、显示、调整等相关功能。手持式地面监控子系统硬件采用基于ARM处理器的嵌入式系统,软件基于Red hat 9.0 Linux操作系统及Qt/Embedded应用程序框架进行设计。无线数据传输模块硬件同样采用XStream无线射频调制解调器,软件则使用第三方串口类qextSerialPort进行设计,实现了无线数据传输功能。增稳操控模块采用AD采集与FIR数字滤波方式来获得高精度操控杆输出量,本文论证了方案的可行性,对FIR线性相位条件进行了证明,根据指标需求设计了基于Kaiser窗的FIR滤波器,并通过仿真结果分析,给出滤波器参数设计对于实际应用影响的相关结论。地面监控系统设计方案实现了旋翼飞行机器人路径规划、增稳操控、状态检测等,为旋翼飞行机器人功能扩展奠定了基础。
英文摘要: Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft that flies without a human crew on board the aircraft. It is gaining attention because of the survivability, high cost-efficiency, usability, versatility and the ability to reduce casualties,and many countries are in the watch of researching and developing the UAV. Rotary wing unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV) is a type of UAV with the ability to fly at low altitude and low speed, to hover, to takeoff and land vertically and etc. therefore it has been widely used in respect to both civilian and military domain. Except for airborne platform, an actual unmanned aerial system (UAS) includes ground station, payloads and launch & recovery. As an important component and the human-machine interface of UAS, ground station is used to control the launch of the air vehicle, the operation of the payload, the reception and display of the downloaded data from the sensors on the airborne platform and etc. During the course of the researching of RUAV, we find it is crucial to UAS to design a functional, security, stable, mobile and flexible ground station. To meet the aforementioned requirements, referring to the new design concept and aiming at the problem in the actual flight, we come up with the design solutions of ground station system composed of portable monitor & control subsystem, handheld monitor & control subsystem and directional antenna tracking subsystem. Portable monitor & control subsystem adopts integrative industrial personal computer (IPC) as the hardware platform and VC++ application framework under Microsoft Windows operation system as the software platform. Aircraft instrumentation is designed with the control supplied by Xtreme Toolkit to monitor the status of the RUAV. Electronic map is created by the client of Google Earth, making use of Google Earth API. Wireless data transmission module employs XStream radio frequency modem and MSComm control to realize wireless data transmission. Video capture module is designed based on Mann VCap2860 video capture card and its software development kit. Handheld monitor & control subsystem adopts embedded system functioned on ARM as the hardware platform and Qt/Embedded application framework under Red hat 9.0 Linux as the software platform. Wireless data transmission module employs the third-party serial port class qextSerialPort to accomplish wireless data transmission. Stability-augmentation control module uses AD and finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter as the design concept. The article proves the theory and feasibility by simulation, introduces the detail of the realization of simulation and come to the conclusion how to choose parameter in the design of FIR filter.      The ground station system realizes path planning, stability-augmentation control monitor and etc, which lays the foundation of the RUAV system feature implementations.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9410
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王启久.宜人化旋翼飞行机器人地面站设计与实现.[硕士学位论文 ].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所 .2010
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