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题名: 污水生化脱氮处理过程的建模、控制与监视研究
其他题名: Modeling, Controlling and Monitoring of Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes with Nitrogen Removal
作者: 袁德成
导师: 于海斌
分类号: X703
关键词: 污水处理过程 ; 建模 ; 控制 ; 监视 ; 脱氮
索取号: X703/Y87/2003
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2004-02-06
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 工业控制系统研究室
中文摘要: 日益严格的环保法规要求污水处理厂不断改善操作和提高排水质量指标。本文以污水生化脱氮处理过程-前置反硝化工艺为对象,研究和建立通过模型化、控制和监视等手段,达到增强污水处理厂操作性能的理论和方法。工作在国际水协会发布的典型工艺上仿真完成,内容涉及动态模拟、局部控制回路设计与评价、故障检测与诊断、模型简化、仿真软件开发等。在过程动态模拟方面,除设计典型工艺外,构造了脱碳、硝化脱氮、反硝化脱氮、脱氮除磷和氧化沟等其它五种典型工艺配置的模型和仿真软件。对于过程控制系统设计,澄清了在单元操作的耦合、二次沉降分离池的作用、入口污水的时变扰动等问题上存在的一些模糊认识。通过五类控制系统的设计、仿真和分析,评价了在不同条件下这些策略的控制效果。并针对氨氮浓度控制难度大的问题,设计了一个新控制回路,仿真表明这对降低瞬时氨氮冲击有效果。在过程监视方面,把呼吸量估计知识组合到多变量主元模型中,提出了一种新的WWTP在线监视策略。由于溶解氧消耗的多少直接与微生物活动及底料降解程度有关,溶解氧浓度检测快速,运行稳定且易维护,因此构造基于呼吸量估计的过程监视方法有显著的优势。关于活性污泥过程的建模,活性污泥1号模型可以用于工艺设计计算,控制设计需要简化或降阶的模型。本文建议采用混合逻辑动态模型,构造统一的、包括所有活性污泥反应器状态变量和二次沉降分离池状态变量在内的状态空间模型。在软件开发方面,完成了一个污水处理工艺仿真软件的设计任务。软件采用服务器/客户结构,数据采集服务器负责现场数据采集或从其它计算机收集共享的数据文件。这样把模拟计算、现场可测数据和离线理化分析数据等统一放在数据库中,使在线混合仿真计算以及构造基于过程历史数据的在线监视策略等成为可能。基于混合动态模型的预测控制设计、工业应用、控制规则库构造等问题是需要进一步深入开展研究的课题。
英文摘要: Stricter legislation on nutrient removal in wastewater treatment requires the improved operation and effluent quality of wastewater treatment plants. The aim of this thesis is to study theories and methodologies to enhance treatment performances by means of advanced modeling, controlling and monitoring. The emphasis is on predenitrification plants for biological nitrogen removal processes. Simulations are performed in Benchmark issued by International Water Association. The dynamic simulation, design and evaluation of local control loops, fault detection and diagnosis, model simplification, simulator development are involved. In the respect of dynamic simulation, the numerical simulation for five kinds of process layouts namely carbon removal, nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, oxidation ditch processes are carried out besides Benchmark simulation. For the design of control systems of wastewater treatment processes, the impercipient about coupling between unit operations, function of secondary clarifiers, time-varying disturbances of influent are emphasized. By design, simulation and analysis of five kinds of control systems, the effectiveness of some local control strategies is evaluated. A new control loop is designed to overcome the difficulty of controlling ammonia nitrogen concentration under the rule constraint, which effects on decreasing instant ammonia nitrogen shock are show by simulation. For wastewater treatment process monitoring, multivariable principal analysis by incorporation with prior knowledge of respirometry estimation is suggested. Because the amount of consumed oxygen has direct relation to microorganism activities and the degradation extent of substrates and Dissolved Oxygen probes have quick response, stable operation and easy maintenance, monitoring strategies combined respirometry estimations have advantages in fault detection and diagnosis and implementation. For activated sludge modeling, activated sludge model No. 1 can be used in process design computation, however simplified or reduced-order models are required for control design. In this thesis, a method is proposed to construct a kind of mixed logic dynamic model, which a set of state space model containing all state variables of activated sludge reactors and secondary clarifier can be set up. In the work of simulator development, the software for simulating wastewater treatment processes has been accomplished. The structure of server/client is adopted. Data acquisition server takes charge of collecting data in site, or gathering shared data files from other computers. In this way, the simulated data, the online measurable data and the analytical data are put together in one database, and make it possible to carry out online hybrid simulation and construct online monitoring strategies based on process historical data. The mixed dynamic model based predictive control design, full-scale applications and the formation of control rules library are the future work.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9475
Appears in Collections:工业信息学研究室_工业控制系统研究室_学位论文

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