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题名: 无线传感器网络高效节能的信息收集机制及方法研究
其他题名: Reseach on Energy Efficiency Information Gathering Mechanism and Methods for Wireless Sensor Network
作者: 曾鹏
导师: 王天然 ; 于海斌
分类号: TP212
关键词: 无线传感器网络 ; 信息收集 ; 自组网 ; 冗余信息处理 ; 报文优化
索取号: TP212/Z22/2005
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2005-01-29
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 工业控制系统研究室
中文摘要: 无线传感器网络是继因特网之后,将对二十一世纪人类生活方式产生重大影响的IT热点技术,在军事、环境、医疗、家庭和其它的商用领域有着很高的应用价值和广阔的应用前景,是目前学术界研究的热点问题之一。信息收集是无线传感器网络最基本的应用,是未来各种复杂应用的基础,是现阶段无线传感器网络研究的重点。基于无线传感器网络的信息收集与传统网络中的信息收集有两点最主要的区别:① 无线传感器网络是一种自组织网络,没有预先配置好的信息传播路径,系统需要在收集信息的同时自主建立并维护路由;② 在无线传感器网络中,相邻微传感器节点采集的信号相关性很强,信息存在大量的冗余,而且用户对每个微传感器采集的原始信号不感兴趣,而是需要高级的经过处理后的信息。这就要求系统在传播信息的过程中对原始信息做出相应的处理。本论文针对基于无线传感器网络的信息收集的新特点与新要求展开了研究工作。主要的研究内容与成果包括: ⑴ 论述了基于无线传感器网络的信息收集面临的挑战性问题,系统地总结了前人的研究成果与不足。 ⑵ 针对无线传感器网络中的能量约束问题,分析了单个传感器节点和整个传感器网络系统在工作过程中的能量消耗,并结合信息收集的典型案例分析了系统工作过程中的能量浪费。 ⑶ 提出了一种节能高效的无线传感器网络信息收集机制。新的信息收集机制以延长系统生存时间为主要目标,同时兼顾信息传输的质量,解决了无线传感器网络中的路由建立与维护、冗余信息处理和报文长度优化问题。论文的贡献主要包括: 1.提出了一种前摄式与反应式相结合的新型路由机制。通过预先在网络各节点间建立一种协同的关系,使得数据源节点在发送数据时可以快速建立优化路径。避免了传统反应式路由盲目搜索路径引发的较大的时间开销和通信开销。 2.提出了一种以全局能耗平衡为目标的新型路径选择策略。从网络整体能量均衡的角度,设计了新型的路由评价函数。在前摄式与反应式相结合的路由模式下,新的路径选择策略可以使系统达到全局的能耗平衡。 3.针对区域单播数据传输模式,提出了一种基于局部协商的网络中信息处理方法。该方法将预先建立的节点间的协同关系作为全局信息,利用无线传感器网络节点密集分布的特点,在多个数据源节点中选择一个数据传输开销最小的节点来发送数据,在源头上抑制了冗余信息的发送。 4.针对区域组播数据传输模式,提出了一种基于反应式成簇的网络中信息处理方法。该方法通过事后根据需求建立簇结构节省了维护簇的开销,并且以测量精度为标准,通过控制簇的规模进一步降低了生成簇的开销。 5.提出基于无线信道误码率的无线传感器网络报文优化算法。该算法采用反馈机制,根据无线信道质量的变化,动态调整发送报文的长度,通过无损的数据聚集方法来提高报文中的有效数据比例。算法对底层的MAC协议没有要求,适合在工作于未知环境下的无线传感器网络中使用。
英文摘要: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is another hotspot technology after Internet, which will influence people’s life significantly in 21st century. WSN has a variety of applications. Examples include military surveillance, environment monitoring, healthy caring, smart space and other commercial applications. It has been paid serious attentions by scholars all over the world. Information gathering is a base application of WSN, which is the basement of other complicated WSN applications. It is now the research emphases of WSN. WSN based information gathering is distinctly different from that in traditional network. The main difference include: ① WSN is a kind of self-organizing wireless network. There have no pre-configured data transmission paths. System needs to build and maintain routes without people’s participation when gathering information. ② In WSN, data sensed by each node are required at a remote base station rather than at other nodes, and the data are being extracted from the environment, leading to large amounts of correlation and redundancy among data signals. The end user cares about a higher level description of events occurring in the environment the nodes are monitoring. In-network processing is needed in the process of data propagation. The content of the thesis includes: ⑴ In this paper, we discuss the challenges of WSN based information gathering, systemically review the pre-proposed methods and summarize the deficiencies of these methods. ⑵ In this paper, we analyze the power consumption of per micro-sensor node and the whole network in the process of information gathering, and use two typical cases to analyze energy wasting in system running. ⑶ In this paper, we propose an energy efficiency WSN based information gathering mechanism. The goal is to extend the system lifetime as well as the quality of data transmission. We focus on the problems of data transmission routes building and maintenance, redundant information filtering, packet length optimization. The contributions of the thesis include: 1.We propose a proactive and reactive synthesized routing mechanism. Using the pre-established virtual relationship among nodes, data sources can quickly set up optimal paths. The new mechanism reduces the high communication and time overhead of blind path searching in traditional reactive routing. 2.We propose a global energy-balanced routing strategy. The core of the strategy is a new route evaluation standard. Using the new routing strategy in our proactive and reactive synthesized routing paradigm, we can get global energy balance in WSN. 3.We propose a local negotiation based in-network processing method for area-unicast data transmission. The local negotiation is guided by the pre-established network state through which the data source nearest to sink is chosen to send data. This method eliminates redundant information at source. 4.We propose a reactive clustering based in-network processing method for area-multicast data transmission. The method reduces the overhead of cluster maintenance by event driven cluster building. Based on measure precision of sensors, the method reduces the overhead of cluster building by constraining the scale of clusters. 5.We propose a bit error rate guided packet length optimization algorithm for WSN. The algorithm has no requirements about the underlying MAC protocol, and be suitable for WSN working in the unknown environment.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9476
Appears in Collections:工业信息学研究室_工业控制系统研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
曾鹏.无线传感器网络高效节能的信息收集机制及方法研究.[博士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2005
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