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全方位纳米移动机器人运动机理及实验研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Mechanics and Experiment of an Omnidirectional Mobile Nanorobot
朱涛1,2
Department机器人学研究室
Thesis Advisor谈大龙
ClassificationTP242
Keyword全方位 纳米移动机器人 滚动摩擦 无线控制
Call NumberTP242/Z82/2003
Pages96页
Degree Discipline机械电子工程
Degree Name博士
2004-01-16
Degree Grantor中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
Place of Conferral沈阳
Abstract微纳米机器人是当代机器人界研究的一个热点,在生物细胞操作、微元器件的加工和装配、大规模集成电路的检验和修补等方面有着广阔的应用前景。本文结合国家863计划“纳米移动机器人机理研究”和中国科学院创新基金项目“全方位纳米移动机器人机理研究”,对于全方位纳米移动机器人的运动机理、数学模型、以及无线控制等问题进行了比较系统深入的研究。 当前纳米移动机器人研究领域的主要问题有:一、尽管提出了各种驱动机理,但是并没有一种特别有效的原理满足纳米操作的需要;二、对大多数纳米机器人的研究是建立在实验基础上的,没有可以系统描述其运动特性的运动学和动力学模型;三、目前纳米机器人的控制多是有线控制,导线的存在在很大程度上降低了机器人的运动精度。 本文在广泛研究各种微驱动器及驱动机理的基础上,针对微纳米操作的特点,提出了一种新的全方位纳米移动机器人运动机理——即基于滚动摩擦的运动机理,并设计了全方位运动机构。机构依靠接触小球的滚动,可将压电陶瓷在垂直方向的变形转变成机构在水平方向的位移。当三个驱动单元成等边三角形布置时,通过控制压电驱动器的电压,就可以实现平面全方位运动。这种机构具有分辨率高,柔性好,体积小,刚度高,工作空间不受限制等优点。 为深入研究纳米移动机器人的运动规律,作者建立了纳米移动机器人的运动学动力学模型,从理论上进一步论证了机构运动的可行性。作者所研制的纳米移动机器人在平面上具有三个自由度,可以实现全方位的运动;当接触小球固定时,它也可以作为一种三自由度微并联机构。本文给出了机器人平面运动及空间运动的运动学反解和正解,并利用拉格朗日法建立了动力学方程。 设计了全方位移动机器人的控制系统,剖析了系统控制中存在的问题,提出无线控制的解决方案。将电路及控制元件集成在机器人上,使之成为一种无线遥控系统。结合纳米机器人的特点,解决了运动规划、实用步态和驱动波形等问题,并从硬件和软件两方面阐述了系统的实现。 最后,以本文研制的全方位纳米移动机器人为载体,进行了运动学特性实验,实验结果与理论分析基本吻合。从应用角度验证了理论模型的正确性和系统设计及控制策略的可行性。
Other AbstractMicro & Nano robot is a hot point in robotics research field for its great potential in biomanipulation, fabrication and assembly of micro components, and repair of Large-scaled circuit. Supported by National High Tech R&D Program viz. 863 project ”Mechanics of Mobile Nanorobot” and innovative grant of SIA “Mechanics of an Omnidirectional Mobile Nanorobot”, the paper presents a systemic research on mechanics, modeling, and wireless control for omnidirectional mobile nanorobot. Nowadays, the difficulties of micro & nano robotics research field are followings: first, there is not a perfect actuating principle meet the requirements of nano manipulation; second, most nanorobots are based on experiment exploration; little attention has been paid to modeling of manorobots; third, the existing wires for enery transfer reduce resolution of nanorobot. After investigating diverse microactuators and mechanics for microactuation, the author not only proposes an innovative mechanics for nanorobot, namely Simplified Rolling frictional force driving Principle, but also designs an omnidirectional mobile nanorobot based on it. With the contact sphere rolling on the base plate, vertical transformation of the piezos can be transformed to horizontal motion of the mechanism. With three drive units arranged on the apexes of an equivalent triangle, omnidirectional motion can be obtained by coordinating the voltages applied on each piezo. The nanorobot has advantages of high resolution, good stiffness and flexibility, large load capacity, and theoretically unlimited motion range on the plane. To pursue a deep understanding of the motion of the nanorobot, kinematic and dynamic model are built to proof the feasibility of the mechanism from theoretic point of view. The nanorobot we built has three degrees of freedoms and omnidirectional motion capability in the plane. While three contact spheres adhered to the base plate, the mechanism becomes a 3-dof parallel mechanism. Forward kinematics and inverse kinematics solutions are derived, as well as dynamic equations on the basis of Largrangian approach. The paper analyzes the motion of the robot from two aspects: viz. joint and body. Each driving unit acts as a joint of the robot. A simple wired control system initially built for analysis of the key characters of the robot. Then, to get rid of the effects of the wires, a teleoperation system is implemented with all circuits and controllers integrated on the robot. Key issues such as motion plan, gait and actuation waveform are discussed. Furthermore, software and hardware involved in the control system are investigated. Finally, some experiments are implemented for the mobile nanorobot to demonstrate its kinematical characteristics. The results are consistent with the theoretic model, which validates the mathematic model, mechanical design and control strategies.
Language中文
Contribution Rank1
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9530
Collection机器人学研究室
Affiliation1.中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
2.中国科学院研究生院
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
朱涛. 全方位纳米移动机器人运动机理及实验研究[D]. 沈阳. 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所,2004.
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