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题名: 小型探查机器人技术研究
其他题名: Technological Research on MiniatureScout Robot
作者: 乔卓
导师: 李小凡 ; 姚辰
分类号: TP242
关键词: 小型探查机器人 ; 复合结构 ; 监督控制 ; 无线数据通讯
索取号: TP242/Q55/2005
学位专业: 模式识别与智能系统
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2005-05-31
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 机器人学研究室
中文摘要: 从1959年,英格伯格和德沃尔联手制造出第一台工业机器人到现在短短四十多年中,随着计算机技术,微电子技术,以及制造技术等等相关技术的不断发展,机器人研究水平越来越高。应用领域已从单一的工业机器人发展到各行各业;应用环境也从简单的结构环境发展到了复杂的非结构环境 。 本论文依托课题---“小型探查机器人”是国家“863”计划资金支持下完成的一种小型地面移动机器人,是应用在非结构环境下,代替人类在危险环境下完成探查功能的小型地面移动机器人。 地面通过能力是衡量地面移动机器人的重要指标,要研制这样一台移动机器人必须首先确定机器人的移动机构。在广泛研究单一移动机构和多种复合移动机构的基础上,针对非结构环境采用的等长的履带-腿复合移动机构大大提高了机器人的地面通过能力。其特点为:1.本体左右各有两条履带,且都为主动驱动。2.左右各有一条腿,即可一起驱动,也可分别主动驱动,并可转360°。3.左右腿各有一条履带,并与本体同侧履带同时驱动。4.具有上下楼梯、上下坡、越沟、跨越障碍等功能,特别是两侧履带不在同一平面上也可行走。 从实用角度出发,本课题采用了远程控制台和机器人本体两部分构成的无线遥控操作模式。远程控制台系统包括:控制信号采集模块、控制器、控制面板、操纵杆控制器、无线图像接收机、无线数据传输电台、监视器、电源等。机器人本体控制系统包括:机器人中心控制器、运动控制卡、电机驱动控制器、电子罗盘、无线图像发射模块、无线数据传输电台,红外摄像机、电源等。 无线数据传输系统和无线图像传输系统将远程控制台与机器人本体连接到了一起。目前的无线数据传输常用方式有以下三种:无线局域网、GPRS以及无线数据专网。考虑到机器人应用在非结构环境的特殊性,我们采用了使用无线数传电台组成的无线数据专网这一通讯方式。另外,无线数据传输协议采用Modbus协议,从而构成Modbus通讯网络,这样大大提高了无线通讯的可靠性同时减少了无线通讯软件的开发难度。 基于以上的硬件和通讯,在控制方式上采用了主从控制方式和监督控制方式。整个机器人通讯、控制程序采用C语言编程。 通过一系列实验,表明该机器人达到和超过了预期各项技术指标,可以完成车底检查、体育场巡检、地道探测、野外搜救等多种非结构环境探查任务,为公安、武警、海关等部门提供服务。
英文摘要: In the short time-span of 40 years from 1959 when Engboder and Dewor co-produced the first industrial robot till now, we have witnessed the ever-increasing development of robotics research thanks to the progress in computing, microelectronics, manufacture and other relevant technologies. The application area of robotics is now enlarged, from industry to various trades, from simple structured environment to complicated unstructured environment. The thesis is based on the project---“small-sized scout robot” which is a small ground mobile robot backed by national 863 funds. It could replace humans in performing hazardous scouting tasks in unstructured environment. The ability to pass through fields is an important criterion for mobile robot, therefore we should first determine the mobility structure when attempting to create such a robot. After widely researching single mobility structure and complex mobility structure, in accordance with unstructured environment, we adopt equal-length track -leg complex mobility structure to enhance the robot’s ability to pass through fields. The features are as following: 1. two tracks on either side of the body, with drive; 2. one leg on each side, with simultaneous drive, swing within the angel of 360º; 3. one track with each leg, moving simultaneously with the two tracks on each side of the body; 4. able to walk on slope and steps, stride ditches, surmount obstacles, etc, able to walk when the tracks on two sides are not on the even ground. In the practical perspective, the project adopts the wireless remote control pattern comprising control panel and robot body. The control panel system inlcude: power, controller, monitor system, and wireless image and datatransmition system. The robot body system include: power, controller, wireless image and data transmiassion system and so on. Wireless data transmission system and wireless image transmission system work together to connect control panel and robot body. At present, there are three types of commonly used wireless data transmission: wireless LAN, GPRS and wireless special data communication Net. In view of the robot’s particularity when applied to unstructured environment, we adopt wireless special data communication Net made up of wireless data transmission stations. Moreover, Modbus pact is used as wireless data transmission pact, forming Modbus communication net, thus greatly enhancin the reliability of wireless communication and reducing the difficulty of wireless communication software development. In accordance with the hardware and communication mentioned above, master-slave control and supervision control are employed as the controlling mode. The entire robot communication and control program employs C language programming. A series of experiments prove that the robot fulfils and even surpasses the technological targets set previously. It could perform various scout tasks in unstructured environment such as searching the base of cars, inspecting stadium, scouting tunnels, rescuing people trapped in wildness, etc. Therefore, it could render services to public security, armed police, customs and other sectors.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9535
Appears in Collections:机器人学研究室_学位论文

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乔卓.小型探查机器人技术研究.[硕士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2005
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