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题名: 颜色三刺激值加权表的计算及相关问题的研究
其他题名: Study of the Computations of Weighting Tables for Calculating CIE Tristimulus Values and Related Topics
作者: 王葛
导师: 李长军
分类号: O43
关键词: 颜色 ; 三刺激值 ; 加权表 ; 光谱反射比 ; 色差
索取号: O43/W32/2005
学位专业: 机械电子工程
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2005-12-15
授予单位: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
学位授予地点: 中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所
作者部门: 先进制造技术研究室
中文摘要: 颜色科学是近几十年来蓬勃发展的一门学科,是彩色电视、彩色印刷、彩色照相、彩色图像处理、纺织、印染、油漆、涂料、车灯等行业必不可少的一门学问。颜色是靠三刺激值做定量描述的,三刺激值是颜色科学的核心,而描述颜色的三刺激值有多种,如工业上通常采用的三刺激值 和CIE规定的三刺激值 等。其中,CIE规定的三刺激值 可以转变成工业实际中常用的各种色度学度量,被视为颜色工业应用的中间桥梁。因此CIE三刺激值的计算方法和计算精度在颜色科学领域占有极其重要的位置。颜色三刺激值加权表的计算使得计算物体表面颜色的三刺激值变得简单、方便而且通用,因此三刺激值的计算精度通常取决于三刺激值加权表的好坏。虽然国际照明委员会(CIE)和美国材料预测试协会(ASTM)已经规定了一些计算三刺激值的方法,并给出了一些标准加权表,但是一方面这些计算加权表的方法还有待进一步改进,从而使这些方法在计算上更简单,而计算结果更精确;另一方面这些加权表的制定只针对特定的标准光源,然而工业应用上遇到的实际光源通常并非标准光源,这样现有的特定标准光源的加权表就不能在工业生产上进行应用,因此需要构造非标准光源的加权表,然而到目前为止,还没有构造这些非标准光源加权表所应遵循的实际具体方法和规范。与此同时,在工业实际应用的过程中还会经常遇到一些其他实际问题,如光谱数据的删节与压缩问题、光谱反射比数据范围的非标准化问题等。为了给出能够满足工业需要的各种加权表,并为构造加权表的方法制定标准和规范提供参考依据,解决工业上需要解决的各种实际应用问题,本文首先分析了CIE关于三刺激值的计算方法和ASTM关于计算表5加权表的有关规定,在此基础上,给出了表5加权表的具体、详细的计算方法和过程,并给出了其简化的计算公式,与此同时,本文还给出了一种基于五次Sprague插值法的新加权表,并给出了其详细的计算步骤和简化的计算公式;接着本文又实现了Claudio对测量信号进行解卷积运算的具体方法,给出了利用解卷积的结果计算物体表面颜色的三刺激值的详细步骤,在此基础上还给出了“基于解卷积的三刺激值加权表”,并给出了利用解卷积的结果计算物体表面三刺激值的大致数值误差估计和基于解卷积的三刺激值加权表的特性仿真;随后本文又在现有的最优加权表的基础上,重新建立新的数学模型,从而给出了两种计算最优加权表的新方法,分别为“基于最小二乘法的最优加权表”和“基于色差的最优加权表”,并对其特性进行了模拟仿真;与此同时,本文还给出了解决“光谱数据范围的非标准化”问题和“光谱数据的删节与压缩”问题的具体方法,并对其特性进行了模拟仿真,给出了其大致的数值误差估计。另一方面,物体表面颜色的三刺激值通常会随着照明条件和观察条件的变化而改变,但物体表面的光谱反射比却不会改变。工业上经常会遇到要求根据物体表面颜色的三刺激值求其表面的光谱反射比的问题,即物体表面光谱反射比的重建问题。物体表面光谱反射比的重建问题在许多工业上起着至关紧要的作用,如纺织、印染、油漆、涂料等行业都需要知道物体表面光谱反射比来计算所需颜色的颜料配方,以满足工业需求和市场竞争;再者,在计算机视觉、计算机彩色图像识别、色彩复制以及光谱图像等领域中,物体光谱反射比的重建问题也已经成为了一个新的研究方向,引起了研究人员的广泛关注。为此,本文首先分析了前人的研究方法,并指出了其尚存在的缺陷,接着在现有方法的基础上,提出了两种新的数学模型,给出了两种重建方法的改进,分别为“改进的基向量法”和“改进的Hawkyard法”,最后对这两种新的改进方法进行了特性仿真。本文对CIE三刺激值加权表及其各种相关问题的研究工作都是颜色应用领域最为基础的研究,在颜色研究领域占有极其重要的位置,所研究的结果对实际生产和工业标准的制定都具有极其重要的指导意义。
英文摘要: In 1931, The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) recommended a system for colour measurement that established the basis for modern colorimitry. Since then, especially in the past decade colorimetry has been rapidly developed. It is absolutely key technology in the many industries, such as colour television, colour printing, colour photography, colour imaging, textile, dyeing, paint, lighting, and so on. Colour can be described by its tristimulus values, and many kinds of tristimulus values have been used in the colour industry, such as RGB, which are used in the colour imaging industry and are ideally suited for hardware implementation, and XYZ, which are prescribed by CIE and is a independent colour space. The tristimulus values XYZ prescribed by CIE can be transformed to other spaces, such as RGB, CMYK, Lab, and etc., and be treated as a bridge of colour industry. So the method and precision of the computation of CIE tristimulus values (XYZ) are very important in the industry of colour. Using of weights or weighting tables makes the computation of CIE tristimulus values simpler and more conveniently. So the precision of computation of tristimulus values lies mostly on the characteristics of weights. The CIE has standardized the method for computing tristimulus values. However, in practice, the CIE method is rarely used. In industrial applications, the weights (weighting tables) are prepared in advance, and the tristimulus values can be computed using the weights and the measured data. However, CIE has never given any guidance as how to prepare the weights, hence significant differences can be obtained for computing the tristimulus values of the same colour object when different weighting tables are used. In order to overcome this problem, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) had published two kinds of standard weighting tables known as ASTM Table 5 and Table 5, each of which is consisted of 36 weighting tables based on 9 standard illuminations and 2 CIE standard observers at 10 and 20 nm intervals. However, there still are many issues needed to be further investigated, such as the ASTM standard weighting tables can be improved or not? Besides, the ASTM standard weighting tables are only for standard light sources. However, in practice the light sources used are different from the standard ones, hence the use have to prepare their own weighting tables. But there is little work existed in the literature as how to compute weighting tables using users’ own light sources. The main objective of this work is to study the existed methods for computing weighting tables, and to explore new methods for computing weighting tables, and finally make comprehensive comparisons among the existed and newly developed methods. Furthermore, some related problems such as reflectance abridging and reconstruction will be studied in this thesis.
语种: 中文
产权排序: 1
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.sia.cn/handle/173321/9577
Appears in Collections:工业信息学研究室_先进制造技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王葛.颜色三刺激值加权表的计算及相关问题的研究.[博士学位论文].中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所.2005
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